Nigeria Checkup

Nigeria—Moving Forward

Nigeria has made some progress with respect to the Paris Agreement. It signed the agreement in September 2016 and ratified it in March 2017, and thus committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The country has instituted policy initiatives that are relevant to climate change including its adoption in 2013 of a National Policy on Climate Change. Measures that are necessary to achieve the country’s commitments include ending gas flaring, increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity supply, improving energy efficiency, and supporting climate smart agriculture and restoration.

Nigeria has pledged to reduce unconditionally by 2030 its GHG emissions by 20%, and conditionally by 45% compared to business as usual levels of 900 MtCO2e. The identified measures would contribute substantially to honoring the agreement. By ratifying the accord, initiating climate relevant policies, and setting up a coordinating unit for climate action, Nigeria is taking forward steps towards meeting its GHG commitments.

Learn More

A summary of Nigeria’s approach to climate change is available at: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/country-profiles/nigeria/
The status of Nigeria’s ratification of the Paris Agreement is available at: http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9444.php
More information on Nigeria’s contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions is available at: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Nigeria/1/Approved%20Nigeria’s%20INDC_271115.pdf

Nigeria Emission Reduction Policy

National Policy on Climate Change

Nigeria’s Federal Executive Council approved and adopted a National Policy on Climate Change in 2013. The policy is the basis for national climate change laws and guide the country’s economic and social response to climate change (ICEED, 2013). The implementation of the policy aims to promote low-carbon, high-growth economic development and foster a climate-resilient society. The National Policy on Climate Change is significant as it aims to detail the comprehensive national goals, objectives and climate adaptation strategies that can/would be undertaken by the Federal, State and Local Governments as well as other relevant stakeholders including civil society, the private sector, communities, and individuals. Unfortunately, at the moment no data is available on the status of efforts to implement the National Policy.

Learn More

More information on Nigeria’s progress on climate change governance as summarized by London School of Economics and Political Science is available here: www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/legislation/countries/nigeria/

More information on Nigeria’s climate change adaptation policy framework is available at:
http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Nigeria/1/Approved%20Nigeria’s%20INDC_271115.pdf

For the objectives of the National Policy on Climate Change, see: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/law/national-policy-on-climate-change-2/

The news of Nigeria’s adoption of its policy on climate change is available here: http://iceednigeria.org/ic/nigeriaadoptsclimatechangepolicydocument/

Nigeria Extreme Weather Event

The Worst Flood in 40 Years

Heavy tropical rains during the wet season in Nigeria, often followed by seasonal flash floods, sometimes lead to death especially in rural areas and overcrowded suburbs due to poor or non-existent drainage (Reuters, 2012). In 2012, Nigeria experienced what has been termed its worst flood in 40 years. The National Emergency Management Agency estimated that the flood of July 2012 killed over 400 persons and displaced over 1 million people. The flood, which affected 30 out of Nigeria’s 36 states, disrupted petroleum production in the oil rich Niger Delta by about 500,000 barrels per day–more than a fifth of the country’s daily output and caused an estimated loss of 2.5 trillion Naira (more than 7 billion US dollars).

Mitigation Measures

In March 2012, the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) forecast heavy rainfall and resulting floods in many parts of the country. The agency warned governments of southern states to be prepared and residents of coastal areas to temporarily relocate from high-risk spots. Further, NIMET produced a manual to prepare for disaster that may arise from a possible failure of the Lake Nyos Dam which was feared could lead to severe flooding in most parts of Northern Nigeria. Some state governments heeded the warning by NIMET and took steps to keep drainage channels clear in towns and cities that significantly reduced the impact of the floods. In most places however, the warnings were largely ignored leading to heavy tolls in lost lives and damaged property.

Disaster relief committees and groups were organized in the wake of the flood at federal, state and local levels to evacuate affected residents, provide temporary shelter, food, and healthcare services for displaced persons and organize rehabilitation efforts.

Preparing for the Future

Following the 2012 floods, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) produced a Post-Disaster Needs Assessment report that included actions necessary to care for affected persons and rehabilitate impacted areas. Workshops were organized for dissemination of early warning messages from the agency. Community consultation and mobilization as well as awareness programs were also implemented at the grassroots level across various communities. The agency also conducted a flood vulnerability mapping project to identify communities at risk of flooding. Contingency plans have been prepared including firming up agreements with local and international stakeholders in disaster management agencies such as the National Orientation Agency, National Environmental Standards Regulations and Enforcement Agency (NESREA), and the United States of America African Command (USAFRICOM).

Learn More

The following link provides information on flooding in Nigeria http://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-floods-idUSBRE8880D320120909

The following link provides information on the death toll due to the flood http://www.irinnews.org/news/2012/10/10-0

More information on the economic impact of the flooding is available at http://www.channelstv.com/2012/11/05/nigerias-worse-flood-kills-363-displaces-2-1-million-people-nema/

More information on the economic impact of the flooding is available at http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/217043-nigeria-managed-flood-better-2016-leading-less-deaths-destruction-nema.html

More information on the warning by NIMET is available at http://www.vanguardngr.com/2012/10/2012-year-of-flood-fury-a-disaster-foretold-but-ignored/

The following link provides information on measures taken by NEMA to mitigate the impact from future flooding events http://nema.gov.ng/how-nema-manages-disasters

Nigeria Media Organizations

Broadcast Media

Eco@Africa TV Program is a weekly program that presents new ideas and best practice projects on environment and climate change from Africa and Europe (DW, 2017a). It is part of the Eco@Africa environmental magazine jointly produced by Germany’s Deutsche Welle (DW) and Nigeria’s Channels TV (German Missions in Nigeria, 2016). This initiative was created at the Climate Change Conference COP21 and is aimed at motivating viewers to protect the environment.

Content Samples:

The Eco@Africa TV programme “Green Homes for Nigeria” featured a story on 2 February 2017, of a housing model that uses low amounts of energy and water. The houses in the “eco village” run on renewable energy and consume one third the amount of energy, and half the quantity of water required in traditional houses. The model’s benefits, its proponents note, include that it is environmentally friendly and cost-efficient due to inbuilt self-cooling, solar energy as electricity source and the reuse of water.

Contact: Nneota Egbe is one of the presenters of eco@africa. He is concerned about the environment and has presented television shows on environmental issues (DW, 2017b).

Print Media

Mrs. Maiden Alex-Ibru is the Chairman of the Guardian Press Limited that owns The Guardian Newspapers Limited (Proshare, 2011). She is also the publisher of the newspaper, and Abraham Ogbodo is its editor. The organization’s perspective on climate change and the Paris Agreement is not publicly available. However, its declared ideals include balanced reporting of events, promotion of Nigeria’s best interests, and upholding of justice (The Guardian, 2017).

Content Sample:

The Guardian, in its 28 November 2016 article, “Resolving the Climate Change Question,” highlights the statements of commitments and support towards reducing climate change made by participating countries at the Marrakech Climate Conference, COP22. The article also mentions Nigeria’s program to attract climate finance through green bonds and reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2030 (The Guardian, 2016).

Contact: Chinedum Uwaegbulam is the Housing and Environment Editor for the Guardian Newspaper Limited. He has written several articles on environmental issues and the real estate sector in Nigeria.

Online Media

EnviroNews Nigeria is an online news magazine that highlights environmental and development-related issues. The portal is dedicated to sharing information that contributes to change towards a healthy and clean environment (EnviroNews Nigeria, 2017). The organization is a partner with the Internews Earth Journalism Network, and is a member of the Climate and Sustainable Development Network of Nigeria.

Content Sample:

EnviroNews Nigeria highlighted deliberations at 2 workshops held in 2016 on climate risk financing and insurance, and environmental and social impact assessment as it relates to transitioning to a green economy in Nigeria. The events were supported by the Federal Republic of Germany through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The issues raised during the workshops include the roles of the insurance and banking sectors of the Nigerian economy in reducing climate-induced risks; and the commitment of Nigerian banks and businesses to corporate environmental and social responsibilities (Environews Nigeria, 2016).

Contact: Michael Simire is the Editor-in-Chief of EnviroNews Nigeria. He is an urban planner and environmentalist, and has delivered papers on climate change, clean cook energy, and REDD+.

Nigeria Subnational Best Practices

Regions/Provinces/States

Cross River State—Cross River State is part of the Compact of States and Regions; a group that currently includes 62 states, provinces and regions of the world, and represents over 17% of the global economy. The group provides incentives for its members to report on climate change mitigation on an annual basis. Cross River State is also part of the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force (GCF), a sub-national association of states and provinces around the world which supports low emissions rural development and reduced emissions from deforestation and land use (NCF, n.d.). A planned super highway across the state’s high tropical forest however, threatens its efforts to offset carbon emissions with potential loss of carbon credit that the state receives as part of the Green Development Paradigm of the United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) programme (The News, 2016).

Contact
Nigerian Conservation Foundation
Mail: Km19, Lekki-Epe Expressway, Lekki, Victoria island, Lagos, Nigeria
Telephone: +2347063369257, or, 2348127556291
Email: info@ncfnigeria.org

Delta State—Delta State is also part of the Compact of States and Regions. In 2013, the state launched its own climate change policy territorial climate change plan, and was the first to do so in Nigeria. In collaboration with the United Nations Development Program, the state’s Territorial Approach to Climate Change Program included obtaining inventories of greenhouse gas emissions levels of sectors within the state and developing climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies for vulnerable communities.

Contact
Delta State Ministry of Environment
Mail: Eric Isichei Street, behind Delta Line Workshop
Along Asaba-Benin Expressway, Asaba
Telephone: +23456281997, or, +23456281996

Cities

Lagos State—Lagos State has the most populated city in Africa, with an estimated population of about 18 million persons. The state’s transportation sector, which moves 7 million persons per day, contributes a substantial amount to Nigeria’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To manage its transportation challenges, the state operates a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system that reportedly has contributed to reducing GHG emissions by 13% in project areas (Taiwo, n.d.). The state annually hosts the Lagos State Summit on Climate Change, a forum where government personnel, the academia, business persons, and other stakeholders share ideas and discuss climate change issues affecting the state. The deliberations usually conclude with recommendations for implementation by the state government.

Contact
Ministry of the Environment
Mail: Block 16, The Secretariat Annex
Alausa, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Telephone: +2349095555580, or +2349055555878
Email: info@moelagos.gov.ng    or   publicaffairs@moelagos.gov.ng

Learn More

The 2016 disclosure report of the Compact of States and Regions is available here.

For more information on the Governors’ Climate and Task Force, see http://www.ncfnigeria.org/about-ncf/item/128-ncf-cross-river-secure-governors-climate-funds-to-reduce-carbon-emission

Details of the work of the Governors’ Climate and Task Force and Cross River State is available here: http://www.network.gcftaskforce.org/subnational?locationID=nigeria.cross_river_state

For more information on the Cross River State super highway, see http://thenewsnigeria.com.ng/2016/03/criver-super-highway-can-deny-nigeria-12m-un-carbon-credit/

For more information on Delta State’s climate change policy and plan, see http://www.frontiersnews.com/delta-launches-climate-change-policy-plan/

Further information on the UNDP and Delta State climate change programme is available here: http://www.ng.undp.org/content/nigeria/en/home/operations/projects/environment_and_energy/taccdelta.html

More information on the Lagos State transportation system is available here: http://www.unep.org/transport/pcfv/PDF/cba_june/CBA_PublicTransportationLagos.pdf

The remarks of the German Consul General on the occasion of the 7th Lagos State Climate Change Summit is available here: http://www.nigeria.diplo.de/Vertretung/nigeria/en/03_20Generalkonsulat/Aktivit_C3_A4ten_20des_20GKs/Rede__Climate_20Change_20Summit.html

More information on the Lagos Eko Atlantic City project is available here: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/12/lagosthreecitieswrestleclimatechalle

Nigeria Leaders and Opponents

Government Official
Amina J. Mohammed
Honourable Minister, Federal Ministry of Environment

Amina J. Mohammed is the current Minister of Environment of Nigeria. She has represented Nigeria in various meetings on climate change, pushing for operationalization of the Climate Change Agreement; including recently in Marrakech, Morocco where she spoke about Nigeria’s participation at the 22nd Session of the Conference of Parties, COP22, of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Contact: Federal Ministry of Environment Headquarters, Block C, Mabuchi, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria
Telephone: +234(0)95233611  Twitter: @AminaJMohammed

Climate Program Advocate
Lawrence I Exemonye
National President, Nigerian Environmental Society

Professor Lawrence I Ezemonye is the current National President of the Nigerian Environmental Society (NES). NES is a non-governmental organization that advocates environmental protection and sustainable environmental development in Nigeria. As president of NES, Professor Ezemonye recently hosted the society’s annual conference with Nigeria’s Minister of Environment and other high-level stakeholders in attendance. An expected output of the conference is a road map that supports environmental protection and promotion of a green economy in Nigeria.

Contact: 41, Moses A. Majekodunmi Crescent, Near Edo Line Terminal, Utako District, Abuja F.C.T, Nigeria  Telephone: +234(0)97830281  Mobile: +234(0)8033384134  Email: hello@nes.org.ng

Climate Program Opponent
Emmanuel Ibe Kachikwu
Minister of State, Petroleum Resources, Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources

Emmanuel Ibe Kachikwu is Nigeria’s current Minister of State, Petroleum Resources. He is responsible for overall coordination and supervision of all activities in the petroleum industry, including advising the Federal Government on all areas pertaining to the oil and gas industry (Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources, 2016). While this office can key into national policies and programs that support climate change mitigation, it is possible that it could lobby (in collaboration with industry stakeholders) for a slowdown of processes and legislations (such as the gas flaring prohibition bill currently before the Senate of the National Assembly) that are perceived to have potential negative outcomes for the petroleum industry.

Contact: Ministry of Petroleum Resources Block D, NNPC Towers, Herbert Macaulay Way, CDB, Abuja Telephone: +234(0)946084627   Twitter: @fmprng

Nigeria Leading Research Study

Research Study: “Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Technical Reports—National” Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change Project, 2012

An important climate change research project recently conducted for Nigeria is the Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change (BNRCC) project. The project, which began in 2007 and finished in 2011, was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and executed by ICF Marbek and CUSO-VSO Canada in partnership with the Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team, N (NEST &Tegler, 2011b). The project aimed to contribute to building informed responses to the issue of climate change in Nigeria by improving the capability of community, state, and national level governance to put in place effective climate adaption approaches, policies, and actions.

The BNRCC project published several climate change reports and strategies including the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Technical Reports – Nigeria (CCASTR).

The CCASTR is a compendium of studies that assesses the susceptibility of Nigeria to climate change and identifies adaptation options for the country. The authors prepared the Report using available information in published research articles, books, and reports. Consultations with individuals working directly in the various sectors (including government workers and private consultants) and BNRCC-supported community-based adaptation pilot projects were also sources of information for preparing the report (NEST & Tegler, 2011a).

The document consists of 5 separate reports on climate change and adaptation as they affect the country’s infrastructure, agriculture, natural resources, and sanitation and health sectors, as well as cross-sectoral issues. The individual reports identified sub-sectors that are vulnerable to climate change. Some of these are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Impacts of Climate Change on Sectors

table

The BNRCC studies found (as other studies have) that Nigeria is already being impacted by climate change as evidenced by recurrent adverse weather-related events. Hence, there is an imperative need for suitable, adequate responses to climate change issues (NEST &Tegler, 2011b). A key outcome of the CCASTR was the development of Nigeria’s National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action on Climate Change for Nigeria (NASPA-CCN) (NEST &Tegler, 2011a).

The results and recommendations of the BNRCC project, which is contained in the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Technical Report (CCASTR) and the National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action for Climate Change Nigeria (NASPA-CCN), together with the findings of other studies on climate change in Nigeria, contributed to the adoption of a National Climate Change Policy and Response Strategy, by the Federal Executive Council of the Federal Government of Nigeria.

Learn More

For a summary of the BNRCC Project, see: https://www.devex.com/organizations/building-nigeria-s-response-to-climate-change-bnrcc-31411

For a discussion by the London School of Economics on Nigeria’s policy on climate change see: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/law/national-policy-on-climate-change-2/

See the complete CCASTR report: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/6688834/nigeria-ccastr-building-nigerias-response-to-climate-change

See the complete NASPA-CCN report http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=27C7F6A7FD5FCAAD495C69457F2C5F7D?doi=10.1.1.367.6707&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Nigeria Emissions Reduction Policy

Nigeria: Nigeria Climate Change Policy Response Strategy

Nigeria is yet to have any climate change specific law enacted by the National Assembly (the legislative arm of government) and assented to by the President (London School of Economics and Political Science, 2013). The country has however adopted several environmental and sectoral policies, strategies, and plans where climate change adaptation could apply; though at present their use in enabling and supporting climate change adaptation is limited (BNRCC, 2011). In 2012, the Federal Executive Council adopted a comprehensive strategy policy on climate change: the Nigeria Climate Change Policy Response and Strategy (New Climate Institute, 2015). The overarching objective of the policy is to promote low-carbon, high-growth economic development and build a climate-resilient society through the achievement of the following targets (London School of Economics and Political Science, 2013; UNFCCC, 2015):

  • Implement mitigation measures that will promote low carbon as well as sustainable and high economic growth;
  • Enhance national capacity to adapt to climate change;
  • Raise climate change related science, technology and R&D to a new level that will enable the country to better participate in international scientific and technological cooperation on climate change;
  • Significantly increase public awareness and involve private sector participation in addressing the challenges of climate change; and
  • Strengthen national institutions and mechanisms (policy, legislative and economic) to establish a suitable and functional framework for climate change governance.

Success of the Policy
Through the policy, Nigeria intends to foster sustainable development by means of national initiatives that strengthen the country’s strategies on climate change preparedness, adaptation and mitigation across all sectors of society including vulnerable groups (London School of Economics and Political Science, 2013). The success or failure of the policy is still too early to determine given that it has only been recently adopted.

Advocates and Supporters for the Policy
A number of studies on climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies have been conducted by civil society groups, academia, faith-based organizations, the private sector, government agencies and international donor organizations. These efforts led to the publication of the National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action for Climate Change Nigeria in 2011; the document describes strategies, programs and measures for 13 important economic and social sectors (UNFCCC, 2015; AAP Nigeria, 2016). Though this policy document did not find official support (London School of Economics and Political Science, 2013), the efforts of the aforementioned groups contributed to the adoption of a National Climate Change Policy and Response Strategy by the Federal Executive Council.

Increasing Policy Capacity
There have been calls to establish a national climate change commission that would coordinate climate issues nationwide (Ekpoh, 2014). A bill on setting up the commission however is yet to be approved. In the meantime, there is the Department of Climate Change, within the Federal Ministry of Environment, that is responsible for the handling of climate change issues. The Federal Government of Nigeria has also established the National Climate Change Trust Fund and the Environmental Sustainability Group to design and attract financing mechanisms for adaptation initiatives (AAP Nigeria, 2016).

Given its recent adoption, it is yet to be seen if there is need to increase the capacity of the policy to improve reduction of greenhouse gases and what lessons, if any, there are for possible adoption/adaptation by other countries.

Learn More

Africa Adaptation Programme (2016). “Nigeria”, AAP Nigeria. Available at: <https://www.undp-aap.org/countries/nigeria> [Accessed 26 September 2016]

Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change Project (2011). National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action on Climate Change for Nigeria (NASPA-CCN), BNRCC. Available at: <http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=27C7F6A7FD5FCAAD495C69457F2C5F7D?doi=10.1.1.367.6707&rep=rep1&type=pdf>

Ekpoh, I. J. (2014). “Slow Response to Climate Change in Nigeria: Need for Urgent and Comprehensive Action”, Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 1, No. 1, 19-29. Available at: <http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/3787/1/corporate%20machiavellism-ijm.pdf>

London School of Economics and Political Science (2013). “National Policy on Climate Change: Executive, Mitigation and Adaptation Framework”, Available at: <http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/law/national-policy-on-climate-change-2/>

NewClimate Institute (2015). “National Policy on Climate Change Nigeria 2013”, Available at: <http://www.climatepolicydatabase.org/index.php?title=National_Policy_on_Climate_Change_Nigeria_2013>

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2015). “Nigeria’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution”, UNFCC. Available at: <http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Nigeria/1/Approved%20Nigeria’s%20INDC_271115.pdf>

Nigeria Energy Production Trends

How the Energy System Is Structured

The development of the energy sector in Nigeria is currently based on/guided by several national policies, programmes and initiatives, and these govern the generation and distribution practices of energy companies. The relevant policies and programmes include (GOPA International Energy Consultants, 2014):

  • National Electric Power Policy (NEPP), 2001—guides changes to ownership, administration and regulation of the power sector, including privatization;
  • National Energy Policy (NEP), 2003—covers the development, production and supply of all energy resources including energy utilisation, efficiency and conservation;
  • National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEDS), 2004—Provides the basis for sustainable poverty reduction, employment generation, wealth creation, and value reorientation. It also makes recommendations for increasing the share of renewable energy in the country’s total energy mix;
  • National Power Sector Reform Act (EPSRA), 2005—provides legal and regulatory structure for unbundling the national electricity power generation and distribution company;
  • Renewable Electricity Policy Guidelines (REPG), 2006—stipulates the intention of the government to expand the renewable energy market;
  • Renewable Electricity Action Programme (REAP), 2006—lays down the actions to be taken in order to increase the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy mix;
  • National Biofuel Policy and Incentives, 2007—aims to support the development of biofuels technology and production of biofuels;
  • Visio 20:2020, 2010—programme with the objective of positioning Nigeria among the top 20 economies in the world by 2020. It identifies key barriers to national development and includes reliable energy provision as a necessary component for economic growth;
  • Renewable Energy Master Plan, 2005 and 2012—a series of steps to be taken so as to improve energy production from renewable energy;
  • National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy (NREEEP), 2014—makes recommendations for an integrated renewable energy and energy efficiency model that ensures sustainable development;
  • Draft Rural Electrification Strategy and Implementation Plan (RESIP), 2014—aims to increase access to electricity including at the rural level and supports the utilisation of both on-grid and off-grid energy; and
  • National Policy on Climate Change, 2015—guides the implementation of actions on climate change adaptation activities in the country (News Express, 2015).

Sources of Energy

Natural gas and hydro power are the major sources of electricity in Nigeria. According to the International Energy Agency, in 2013, Nigeria produced 23,635 GWh (81.61%) and 5,326 GWh (18.39%) of electricity and heat from natural gas and hydro respectively (IEA, 2016). However, the share of electricity and heat in final energy use in the country is less than 2% (GOPA International Energy Consultants, 2014). More than 80% [99,305 kilotonne of oil equivalent (ktoe)] of total consumed energy (114,294 ktoe) comes from biomass and waste, while natural gas, re-imported oil products, and coal account for about 13% (see Table 1).

nigeria1

nigeria2

The use of biomass in the form of fuel wood is a major contributor to loss of vegetation cover and increase in desertification in the country (GOPA International Energy Consultants, 2014). Nigeria has strong renewable energy potentials from solar and wind energy; however, their development is currently at infancy.

Profiles of Leading Energy Producers

The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), in a bid to improve electricity generation and supply in the country, recently unbundled the national power generation and distribution company, Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), and opened up the energy sector for the participation of private firms. In collaboration with the United States Government’s Power Africa project, FGN has approved a number of renewable and non-renewable energy production companies (see Table 2) including successor companies of PHCN, Azura-Edo Energy and JBS Wind Power (USAID, 2015).

nigeria3

The operation of the power production plants is expected to have an impact on environmental resources and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Natural gas power plants are estimated to produce carbon emissions within the range of 300 – 700 gCO2eq/kWh. The carbon emissions are estimated at 3 – 45 gCO2eq/kWh from onshore wind farms and 7 – 23g CO2eq/kWh from offshore wind farms (Thomson and Harrison, 2015). Any measures by the companies to curtail GHG emissions will be known as the plants are completed and become operational.

Azura is a developer, financier, acquirer and operator of Independent Power Plants (IPPs) and power related assets in West Africa. Its Azura-Edo IPP is a 450MW open cycle gas turbine power station and the first phase of a 2,000MW power plant facility near Benin City, in Edo State, Nigeria. The project reached financial close on 28 December 2015 and construction started on 5 January 2016 (Azura, 2012).

JBS Wind Power Ltd is a renewable power generation company developing a 100MW wind power plant in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The project consists of 50 x 2MW Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) with a nameplate capacity rating of 100MW that generate approximately 342,000MWH of electricity per year. The economic lifetime of the project is 20 to 30 years (JBS Wind Power Limited, n.d.).

Submitted by Climate Scorecard Country Manager Chiudo Ehrim

Nigeria Emission Reduction Challenges

Leading Emission Reduction Challenges: (a) Dependence on fossil fuels as energy sources; (b) Absence of climate change policies and programs; (c) Changing peoples’ behavior

 

Current Greenhouse Gas Emission Levels

The World Resources Institute estimates that Nigeria’s greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 (its latest record for the country) exceeded 296 MtCO2e (excluding land use). The figure exceeds 474 MtCO2e when land use is included (CAIT Climate Data Explorer, 2015). The data available for the period 2000 – 2012 show an upward trend in emissions with drops in levels for 2007 through 2009, compared to 2006 values (280 MtCO2e without land use and 463 MtCO2e with land use). However, the emissions in 2011 and 2012 were each 16 points (excluding land use) and 11 points (including land use) higher than 2006 levels.

 

Emission Reduction Challenges

Key barriers to Nigeria’s reducing its greenhouse gas emissions are dependence on fossil fuels for energy and foreign exchange as well as significant levels of gas flaring during petroleum exploration and production. Many Nigerians, because of limited electricity supply from the national grid, provide their own electricity for business and personal use by means of privately owned fossil fuel powered generators (Punch, 2016; Oyedepo, 2012). According to the World Trade Organisation (2015) in its report on international trade, fuels constituted 79.3% of Nigeria’s exports in 2014. The Oil & Gas sector accounted for 18% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2013 (Nigerian Export-Import Bank, 2015).

Nigeria, in its Paris Agreement Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) noted that to meet its conditional and unconditional targets, the country would have to end gas flaring by 2030, reduce dependence on fossil fuel powered generators while enabling access to energy for all Nigerians, and establish significant (13Giga Watts) off-grid solar electricity as well as be given technical support to improve energy efficiency. The estimated national cost is more than US$100 billion (ICF International, 2016). To achieve the set goals, both present and successive governments at all levels will have to implement (and where necessary improve on) the national and other policies that formed the basis of the INDCs.

Abubakar Alkali, a practicing environmental management professional in Nigeria, in his comments on the issue pointed out that Nigeria did not participate in the signing of the Paris Agreement let alone meeting a pledge (Alkali, 2016). He believes this was because Nigeria did not recognize the Agreement to be important; some Nigerians perceive the Agreement to be retrogressive and would undermine the country’s development efforts.

Nigeria’s inability to sign the agreement, Mr. Alkali remarks, means that the country’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions would increase as no efforts will be made to make reductions. He suggests an urgent constitution of a national think-tank in this area and strengthening of relevant national institutions to introduce and implement policies, plans and programs aimed at reducing GHG emissions.

Olu Andah, another practicing environmental management professional in Nigeria, identified the following barriers to Nigeria’s minimizing its greenhouse gas emissions: traditional bush burning in preparing land for farming; absence of environmental education on climate change in the rural areas with particular reference to use of wood as major source of energy for domestic purposes; inadequate provision in environmental laws on the control of industrial air pollution; inadequate institutional structure and poor capacity on climate change in Federal and State Ministries of Environment; and discordant national policy on climate change. (Andah, 2016).

These issues Mr. Andah notes translate to absence of reliable data on quantities and major sources of greenhouse gasses. Also, the situation prevents regulatory agencies from meaningfully tackling the problems; for example, selecting the best technological and natural methods to reduce emissions. To overcome the challenges, Nigeria needs a coordinated and implementable policy on climate change; the policy must be such that responsible MDAs can produce implementable and enforceable greenhouse gas emission control regulations. Lastly, educational awareness programs should not be concentrated in city centers only but taken down to the rural areas.

–Submitted by Climate Scorecard Country Manager Chiudo Ehirim

 

Useful Resources

CAIT Climate Data Explorer, 2015. CAIT-Historical Emissions Data (Countries, U.S. States, UNFCCC). CAIT Climate Data Explorer, Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. http://cait.wri.org

ICF International, 2016. “Nigeria Summary” in Analysis of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) June 2016, USAID Resources to Advance LEDS Implementation program, pp. 35-36. https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/INDC%20White%20Paper%20-%20June%202016_public_RALI.pdf

Nigerian Export-Import Bank, 2015. “From the desk of the MD/CEO” in President Buhari and economic diversification, Ignite Quarterly Journal, Nigerian Export-Import Bank, p.3.

Oyedepo, S.O., 2012. Energy and sustainable development in Nigeria: the way forward. Energy, Sustainability and Society, Springer Open, 2:15, DOI: 10.1186/2192-0567-2-15 https://energsustainsoc.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2192-0567-2-15

Punch, 2016. Power failure: Nigerians burn N17.5tn fuel on generators in five years. Punch, 25 July. http://punchng.com/power-failure-nigerians-burn-n17-5tn-fuel-on-generators-in-five-years/

World Trade Organisation, 2015. International Trade Statistics 2015, World Trade Organisation https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2015_e/its2015_e.pdf