Nigeria Subsidies

Nigeria—$160 million USD in 2017

Nigeria introduced petroleum subsidies in the 1960s with the aim of strengthening its local industry and improving product affordability and domestic consumption (Akinyemi and others, 2015). A report published by the Council on Foreign Relations estimates that the Federal Government of Nigeria spent about $20 billion on fuel subsidy in 2013 (CFR, 2016).

The subsidy was removed in May 2016 amid falling crude oil price and an economic recession. However, more than $160 million was spent on subsidy in early 2017 as the national oil company absorbed costs due to an increase in crude oil price from about $20 per barrel in 2015 to about $50 per barrel for most of 2017 (Vanguard, 2017). The short duration of the subsidy removal makes it difficult to assess its effect on carbon emissions reduction.

The collapse in crude oil price in recent times was an important factor that led the Federal Government to remove fuel subsidies. It also was felt that an enduring global shift in focus from fossil fuels to renewables (available at an affordable price) would drive down petroleum prices and naturally incentivize the government to remove subsidies. In the meantime, local production and supply of petroleum products by existing and new refineries would eliminate much of the costs subsidized by the government (CPPA, 2015).

Learn More

A research paper on fuel subsidy reform and environmental quality in Nigeria is available at: http://www.academia.edu/27122604/Fuel_Subsidy_Reform_and_Environmental_Quality_in_Nigeria

The Council on Foreign Relations report is available here: https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Sivaram_Harris_Subsidies_OR.pdf

A news article on 2017 fuel subsidy in Nigeria is available at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/06/fuel-subsidy-returns-nnpc-records-n50bn-shortage/

A discourse on Nigeria’s fuel subsidy can be found here: http://cpparesearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Fuel-Subsidy_Study-Report_2011.pdf

Nigeria Survey

The findings of a survey conducted in 2015 of 379 public officials and university students in Lagos State and Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria showed that most of those surveyed (about 340 individuals) believed that human activities were a significant cause of climate change.

Knowledge of Global Warming and Climate Change among Rural Folks
A survey conducted in 2012 of 120 farmers and other residents of four rural communities in Cross River State, Nigeria sought to assess the level of awareness of climate change causes and mitigation/adaptation strategies. More than 80 of the respondents were aware of climate change and about 80 individuals believed that human activities could induce climate change (Egbe and others, 2013). Environmental education and sensitization by the civil society sector in the rural communities were the main source of local knowledge of climate change issues.

Knowledge of Climate Change among Public Officials and University Students
The findings of a survey conducted in 2015 of 379 public officials and university students in Lagos State and Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria showed that most of those surveyed (about 340 individuals) believed that human activities were a significant cause of climate change. They were more aware of local climate change impacts than of the effects across Nigeria; and their personal experience influenced their knowledge of and attitudes towards climate change (Ojomo and others, 2015).

Knowledge of Climate Change among Urban Residents
A survey was conducted in 2015 of 200 residents of urban parts of Ibadan in Oyo State, Nigeria. The results of the study which assessed respondents’ knowledge of global warming and mitigation measures indicate that while most respondents had significant knowledge of global warming, they were indifferent as to its importance. (Adio-Moses and Aladejana, 2015).

Learn More

The research paper on knowledge of global warming and climate change amsong rural folks is available at: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/viewFile/34484/19647

The research paper on knowledge of climate change among public officials and university students can be found at: www.mdpi.com/2076-3298/2/4/435/pdf

The research paper on knowledge of climate change among urban residents is available at: http://www.abrmr.com/myfile/best_track/conference_24447.pdf

Nigeria Strategies

Nigeria: 1) Fully implement country’s existing pledge; (2) End gas flaring by 2030; (3) Improve the national electricity grid by increasing power generation and the efficiency of distribution

Nigeria has demonstrated the country’s intentions as captured in its INDC, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while growing the economy sustainably. The submitted INDC is reasonable as it sets realistic targets and identifies key measures to achieve them (UNFCCC, 2015). It is important that Nigeria takes the identified steps to honor the reduction pledge.

A key measure for achieving the set targets as identified in Nigeria’s INDC is ending gas flaring by 2030. Gas flaring has been theoretically prohibited since 1984; however, deadlines have been extended several times and Nigeria remains a top gas flaring nation. The fine for gas flaring is not substantial to motivate oil companies to significantly reduce flares and invest in gas capture and sale. It thus makes good business sense to flare (Milieudefensie, 2010; Resilience, 2013). The government needs to implement the policies and plans that it has developed to deal with the issue, including the Petroleum Industry Governance Bill, and Gas Master Plan (ThisDay, 2017). There is also a need to further develop gas infrastructure and markets, and strengthen the legal, regulatory, investment, and operating environments (Sustainable Energy for All Forum, 2014).

Another key measure identified in Nigeria’s INDC for reducing the country’s greenhouse gas emissions is improvement of the national electricity grid. Increasing power generation and improving the efficiency of its distribution would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the estimated 9 million electricity generators operated by individuals and businesses due to erratic power supply from the national grid. The Center for Global Development (2014) estimates that replacing these generators with electricity from large-scale natural gas plants could cut carbon dioxide emissions in Nigeria by 18 million metric tons per year (which is a 63% decrease from the level in 2014).

Learn More

Nigeria’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions is available here: http://www4.unfccc.int/ndcregistry/PublishedDocuments/Nigeria%20First/Approved%20Nigeria%27s%20INDC_271115.pdf

A factsheet on flaring in Nigeria is available at: https://milieudefensie.nl/publicaties/factsheets/factsheet-broken-promises

A few reasons why Nigeria continues to flare natural gas can be found at: http://www.resilience.org/stories/2013-09-03/gas-flaring-the-burning-issue/

A report on Nigeria’s plans and legal instruments to reduce gas flaring can be found here: https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2017/05/21/ending-nigerias-wasteful-habit-of-gas-flaring/

The necessary measures to stop gas flaring in Nigeria and selected countries is available at: http://se4all.org/sites/default/files/l/2014/06/f1-presentation-hamso.pdf

A discussion on how improving electricity generated and supplied by Nigeria’s national grid can be found at: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/how-can-nigeria-cut-co2-emissions-63-build-more-power-plants

Nigeria Renewable Energy

Nigeria—No 100% 2050 commitment
Benchmark: 30% renewable energy in the country’s energy mix by 2030

The Federal Government of Nigeria, in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP, 2015 – 2030) intends to achieve 30% renewable energy in the country’s energy mix by year 2030. The target renewable energy share of installed electricity capacity (excluding medium and large hydro) is 27% and 28% by years 2020 and 2030 (NACOP, 2016).

Plans for Achieving Renewable Energy Goals

The following measures have been taken by the government to promote the use of renewable energy in Nigeria and increase its contribution to the country’s energy mix:

1. Existing policies and plans such as: the National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy that supports renewable energy use; the National Policy on Public Private Partnership that provides guidelines for public and private partnership for development projects/programs; and the National Biofuel Policy to promote biofuel production and use.

There also is an existing National Renewable Energy Master Plan that outlines a road map for increasing renewable energy, as well as a Rural Electrification Strategy and Implementation Plan for providing power to rural areas by means of renewable energy.

2. Planned regulatory instruments such as Feed-in Tariffs and competitive procurement programs for photovoltaic, biomass, wind, and small & medium hydro plants.

3. Capacity development components such as the GIZ-Nigerian Energy Support Program to develop professional and technical courses on renewable energy and energy efficiency.

4. Financial instruments such as soft loans, subsidies and grants for renewable energy projects

Projects to Contribute the Largest Amount of Renewable Energy

A number of on-going projects will generate substantial amounts of energy from renewable sources.

The Power Africa project of the United States Agency for International Development is expected to support 14 utility-scale solar independent power projects totaling over 1125 MW to be supplied to the national grid for residential and industry use. The Power Africa project will also support off-grid provision of energy to another 70,000 homes and small businesses through rooftop solar panels (USAID, 2017).

Learn More

Nigeria’s renewable energy action plans are available here: http://pwh.gov.ng/download/NATIONALRENEWABLEENERGYACTIONPLANS(NREAP).pdf
More information on the USAID Power Africa project is available at: https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/nigeria

Nigeria Success Project

Nigeria—Nigerian Rural Electrification Policy—2005

The Nigerian Rural Electrification Policy—2005 aims to achieve rural access to electricity through the cost-effective use of grid and off-grid approaches as well as standalone systems (GIZ, 2015). The Federal Government of Nigeria, in recognition of the potential for renewable energy sources to facilitate extension of electricity services, has installed more than 115MW of off-grid solar-based and PV/wind hybrid systems across the country (GIZ, 2015). The Power Africa project of the United States Agency for International Development is providing support to 14 Greenfield photovoltaic projects totaling over 1125 MW of power (USAID, 2017). Also, initiatives such as Solar Nigeria supported by United Kingdom’s Department for International Development have powered more than 180,000 homes since mid-2015 (Thisday, 2016).

The Federal Ministry of Environment initiated a Renewable Energy Program as part of its national strategy to fulfill its obligation to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and meet its Paris Agreement greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. Through the program’s rural energy access project, solar-based and biomass-to-energy projects are planned for several states in Nigeria (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2014).

Nigeria made a commitment to the Paris Agreement to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 20% (unconditional) and 45% (conditional) compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. A key measure that the country identified in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to meet its mitigation objectives is to generate 13,000MW of electricity by means of off-grid solar PV, and to expand rural electrification services through decentralized, cost-efficient renewable energy solutions. This strategy has the potential to reduce the country’s greenhouse gas emissions by 31 million tonnes per year by 2030 (UNFCCC, 2015). An important objective of the Nigerian Rural Electrification Policy (NREP) and its National Rural Electrification Implementation Strategy and Plan—2014 is to decentralize rural electrification and use renewable energy options wherever cost-effective and feasible to increase rural access to electricity; hence the NREP will contribute substantially toward meeting Nigeria’s INCD Pledge.

The Nigerian Rural Electrification Policy—2005 can be replicated and scaled in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the similar power challenges experienced by countries in the region as well as similar socioeconomic/cultural attributes and climatic conditions. Renewable electricity generation is financially attractive for the region and particularly so for households that are not connected to the national electricity grid. There is also the potential for many small and medium scale entrepreneurs to find work in the sector (UNFCCC, 2015).

Learn More

Nigeria’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions is available here: http://www4.unfccc.int/ndcregistry/PublishedDocuments/Nigeria%20First/Approved%20Nigeria%27s%20INDC_271115.pdf
More information on rural electrification in Nigeria can be found at: https://www.giz.de/en/downloads/giz2015-en-nigerian-energy-sector.pdf
More information on USIAD Power Africa projects in Nigeria can be found here: https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/nigeria
The news article on Solar Nigeria is available at: http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/09/08/92000-nigerian-homes-electrified-with-solar-power-in-six-months/
More information on the Renewable Energy Programme of the Federal Ministry of Environment is available here: http://renewableenergy.gov.ng/projects/

Nigeria Checkup

Nigeria—Moving Forward

Nigeria has made some progress with respect to the Paris Agreement. It signed the agreement in September 2016 and ratified it in March 2017, and thus committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The country has instituted policy initiatives that are relevant to climate change including its adoption in 2013 of a National Policy on Climate Change. Measures that are necessary to achieve the country’s commitments include ending gas flaring, increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity supply, improving energy efficiency, and supporting climate smart agriculture and restoration.

Nigeria has pledged to reduce unconditionally by 2030 its GHG emissions by 20%, and conditionally by 45% compared to business as usual levels of 900 MtCO2e. The identified measures would contribute substantially to honoring the agreement. By ratifying the accord, initiating climate relevant policies, and setting up a coordinating unit for climate action, Nigeria is taking forward steps towards meeting its GHG commitments.

Learn More

A summary of Nigeria’s approach to climate change is available at: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/country-profiles/nigeria/
The status of Nigeria’s ratification of the Paris Agreement is available at: http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9444.php
More information on Nigeria’s contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions is available at: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Nigeria/1/Approved%20Nigeria’s%20INDC_271115.pdf

Nigeria Emission Reduction Policy

National Policy on Climate Change

Nigeria’s Federal Executive Council approved and adopted a National Policy on Climate Change in 2013. The policy is the basis for national climate change laws and guide the country’s economic and social response to climate change (ICEED, 2013). The implementation of the policy aims to promote low-carbon, high-growth economic development and foster a climate-resilient society. The National Policy on Climate Change is significant as it aims to detail the comprehensive national goals, objectives and climate adaptation strategies that can/would be undertaken by the Federal, State and Local Governments as well as other relevant stakeholders including civil society, the private sector, communities, and individuals. Unfortunately, at the moment no data is available on the status of efforts to implement the National Policy.

Learn More

More information on Nigeria’s progress on climate change governance as summarized by London School of Economics and Political Science is available here: www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/legislation/countries/nigeria/

More information on Nigeria’s climate change adaptation policy framework is available at:
http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Nigeria/1/Approved%20Nigeria’s%20INDC_271115.pdf

For the objectives of the National Policy on Climate Change, see: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/law/national-policy-on-climate-change-2/

The news of Nigeria’s adoption of its policy on climate change is available here: http://iceednigeria.org/ic/nigeriaadoptsclimatechangepolicydocument/

Nigeria Extreme Weather Event

The Worst Flood in 40 Years

Heavy tropical rains during the wet season in Nigeria, often followed by seasonal flash floods, sometimes lead to death especially in rural areas and overcrowded suburbs due to poor or non-existent drainage (Reuters, 2012). In 2012, Nigeria experienced what has been termed its worst flood in 40 years. The National Emergency Management Agency estimated that the flood of July 2012 killed over 400 persons and displaced over 1 million people. The flood, which affected 30 out of Nigeria’s 36 states, disrupted petroleum production in the oil rich Niger Delta by about 500,000 barrels per day–more than a fifth of the country’s daily output and caused an estimated loss of 2.5 trillion Naira (more than 7 billion US dollars).

Mitigation Measures

In March 2012, the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) forecast heavy rainfall and resulting floods in many parts of the country. The agency warned governments of southern states to be prepared and residents of coastal areas to temporarily relocate from high-risk spots. Further, NIMET produced a manual to prepare for disaster that may arise from a possible failure of the Lake Nyos Dam which was feared could lead to severe flooding in most parts of Northern Nigeria. Some state governments heeded the warning by NIMET and took steps to keep drainage channels clear in towns and cities that significantly reduced the impact of the floods. In most places however, the warnings were largely ignored leading to heavy tolls in lost lives and damaged property.

Disaster relief committees and groups were organized in the wake of the flood at federal, state and local levels to evacuate affected residents, provide temporary shelter, food, and healthcare services for displaced persons and organize rehabilitation efforts.

Preparing for the Future

Following the 2012 floods, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) produced a Post-Disaster Needs Assessment report that included actions necessary to care for affected persons and rehabilitate impacted areas. Workshops were organized for dissemination of early warning messages from the agency. Community consultation and mobilization as well as awareness programs were also implemented at the grassroots level across various communities. The agency also conducted a flood vulnerability mapping project to identify communities at risk of flooding. Contingency plans have been prepared including firming up agreements with local and international stakeholders in disaster management agencies such as the National Orientation Agency, National Environmental Standards Regulations and Enforcement Agency (NESREA), and the United States of America African Command (USAFRICOM).

Learn More

The following link provides information on flooding in Nigeria http://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-floods-idUSBRE8880D320120909

The following link provides information on the death toll due to the flood http://www.irinnews.org/news/2012/10/10-0

More information on the economic impact of the flooding is available at http://www.channelstv.com/2012/11/05/nigerias-worse-flood-kills-363-displaces-2-1-million-people-nema/

More information on the economic impact of the flooding is available at http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/217043-nigeria-managed-flood-better-2016-leading-less-deaths-destruction-nema.html

More information on the warning by NIMET is available at http://www.vanguardngr.com/2012/10/2012-year-of-flood-fury-a-disaster-foretold-but-ignored/

The following link provides information on measures taken by NEMA to mitigate the impact from future flooding events http://nema.gov.ng/how-nema-manages-disasters

Nigeria Media Organizations

Broadcast Media

Eco@Africa TV Program is a weekly program that presents new ideas and best practice projects on environment and climate change from Africa and Europe (DW, 2017a). It is part of the Eco@Africa environmental magazine jointly produced by Germany’s Deutsche Welle (DW) and Nigeria’s Channels TV (German Missions in Nigeria, 2016). This initiative was created at the Climate Change Conference COP21 and is aimed at motivating viewers to protect the environment.

Content Samples:

The Eco@Africa TV programme “Green Homes for Nigeria” featured a story on 2 February 2017, of a housing model that uses low amounts of energy and water. The houses in the “eco village” run on renewable energy and consume one third the amount of energy, and half the quantity of water required in traditional houses. The model’s benefits, its proponents note, include that it is environmentally friendly and cost-efficient due to inbuilt self-cooling, solar energy as electricity source and the reuse of water.

Contact: Nneota Egbe is one of the presenters of eco@africa. He is concerned about the environment and has presented television shows on environmental issues (DW, 2017b).

Print Media

Mrs. Maiden Alex-Ibru is the Chairman of the Guardian Press Limited that owns The Guardian Newspapers Limited (Proshare, 2011). She is also the publisher of the newspaper, and Abraham Ogbodo is its editor. The organization’s perspective on climate change and the Paris Agreement is not publicly available. However, its declared ideals include balanced reporting of events, promotion of Nigeria’s best interests, and upholding of justice (The Guardian, 2017).

Content Sample:

The Guardian, in its 28 November 2016 article, “Resolving the Climate Change Question,” highlights the statements of commitments and support towards reducing climate change made by participating countries at the Marrakech Climate Conference, COP22. The article also mentions Nigeria’s program to attract climate finance through green bonds and reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2030 (The Guardian, 2016).

Contact: Chinedum Uwaegbulam is the Housing and Environment Editor for the Guardian Newspaper Limited. He has written several articles on environmental issues and the real estate sector in Nigeria.

Online Media

EnviroNews Nigeria is an online news magazine that highlights environmental and development-related issues. The portal is dedicated to sharing information that contributes to change towards a healthy and clean environment (EnviroNews Nigeria, 2017). The organization is a partner with the Internews Earth Journalism Network, and is a member of the Climate and Sustainable Development Network of Nigeria.

Content Sample:

EnviroNews Nigeria highlighted deliberations at 2 workshops held in 2016 on climate risk financing and insurance, and environmental and social impact assessment as it relates to transitioning to a green economy in Nigeria. The events were supported by the Federal Republic of Germany through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The issues raised during the workshops include the roles of the insurance and banking sectors of the Nigerian economy in reducing climate-induced risks; and the commitment of Nigerian banks and businesses to corporate environmental and social responsibilities (Environews Nigeria, 2016).

Contact: Michael Simire is the Editor-in-Chief of EnviroNews Nigeria. He is an urban planner and environmentalist, and has delivered papers on climate change, clean cook energy, and REDD+.

Nigeria Subnational Best Practices

Regions/Provinces/States

Cross River State—Cross River State is part of the Compact of States and Regions; a group that currently includes 62 states, provinces and regions of the world, and represents over 17% of the global economy. The group provides incentives for its members to report on climate change mitigation on an annual basis. Cross River State is also part of the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force (GCF), a sub-national association of states and provinces around the world which supports low emissions rural development and reduced emissions from deforestation and land use (NCF, n.d.). A planned super highway across the state’s high tropical forest however, threatens its efforts to offset carbon emissions with potential loss of carbon credit that the state receives as part of the Green Development Paradigm of the United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) programme (The News, 2016).

Contact
Nigerian Conservation Foundation
Mail: Km19, Lekki-Epe Expressway, Lekki, Victoria island, Lagos, Nigeria
Telephone: +2347063369257, or, 2348127556291
Email: info@ncfnigeria.org

Delta State—Delta State is also part of the Compact of States and Regions. In 2013, the state launched its own climate change policy territorial climate change plan, and was the first to do so in Nigeria. In collaboration with the United Nations Development Program, the state’s Territorial Approach to Climate Change Program included obtaining inventories of greenhouse gas emissions levels of sectors within the state and developing climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies for vulnerable communities.

Contact
Delta State Ministry of Environment
Mail: Eric Isichei Street, behind Delta Line Workshop
Along Asaba-Benin Expressway, Asaba
Telephone: +23456281997, or, +23456281996

Cities

Lagos State—Lagos State has the most populated city in Africa, with an estimated population of about 18 million persons. The state’s transportation sector, which moves 7 million persons per day, contributes a substantial amount to Nigeria’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To manage its transportation challenges, the state operates a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system that reportedly has contributed to reducing GHG emissions by 13% in project areas (Taiwo, n.d.). The state annually hosts the Lagos State Summit on Climate Change, a forum where government personnel, the academia, business persons, and other stakeholders share ideas and discuss climate change issues affecting the state. The deliberations usually conclude with recommendations for implementation by the state government.

Contact
Ministry of the Environment
Mail: Block 16, The Secretariat Annex
Alausa, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Telephone: +2349095555580, or +2349055555878
Email: info@moelagos.gov.ng    or   publicaffairs@moelagos.gov.ng

Learn More

The 2016 disclosure report of the Compact of States and Regions is available here.

For more information on the Governors’ Climate and Task Force, see http://www.ncfnigeria.org/about-ncf/item/128-ncf-cross-river-secure-governors-climate-funds-to-reduce-carbon-emission

Details of the work of the Governors’ Climate and Task Force and Cross River State is available here: http://www.network.gcftaskforce.org/subnational?locationID=nigeria.cross_river_state

For more information on the Cross River State super highway, see http://thenewsnigeria.com.ng/2016/03/criver-super-highway-can-deny-nigeria-12m-un-carbon-credit/

For more information on Delta State’s climate change policy and plan, see http://www.frontiersnews.com/delta-launches-climate-change-policy-plan/

Further information on the UNDP and Delta State climate change programme is available here: http://www.ng.undp.org/content/nigeria/en/home/operations/projects/environment_and_energy/taccdelta.html

More information on the Lagos State transportation system is available here: http://www.unep.org/transport/pcfv/PDF/cba_june/CBA_PublicTransportationLagos.pdf

The remarks of the German Consul General on the occasion of the 7th Lagos State Climate Change Summit is available here: http://www.nigeria.diplo.de/Vertretung/nigeria/en/03_20Generalkonsulat/Aktivit_C3_A4ten_20des_20GKs/Rede__Climate_20Change_20Summit.html

More information on the Lagos Eko Atlantic City project is available here: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/12/lagosthreecitieswrestleclimatechalle