Mexico Subsidies

Mexico–220 billion Mexican pesos spent in subsidies in 2012, 1.4% of Mexico’s GDP

For a long time, talks against fossil fuel subsidies in Mexico were common in political and academic circles, as well as in several newspapers. For many, subsidies symbolized a national budgetary expenditure that could be better used for other social programs (according to official sources, 220 billion Mexican pesos were spent in fossil fuel subsidies in 2012, 1.4% of Mexico’s GDP); and for a few, they also meant a continuous promotion of greenhouse-gas emission and atmospheric pollution.

With the Energy Reform of 2012, a ray of hope emerged as the Reform promised not only increased market competition and efficiency with the introduction of private enterprises, but also, the gradual elimination of fossil fuel subsidies. With this plan, fuel prices were to be fixed by the government and subsidies were to be liberalized during 2017.

Nevertheless, this has meant a new type of subsidy, as the federal government, in an effort to quickly establish a competitive environment, allowed tax deductions to those new companies entering the oil and gas sector, ranging from 10% to even a 100% tax exemption for exploration expenditures. Moreover, although subsidies for consumers have been gradually reduced in recent years, the intention to liberalize the price of fuel have been deferred until 2018. The Secretary of Finance had to reduce taxes for gasoline and diesel by 20% at the beginning of the year when the price of fuel skyrocketed to its highest levels in 20 years. This led to unrest from the population in the form of protests, blockage of roads, and confrontations.

As some authors highlight, this is part of an underlying political issue that relates to the way subsidies affect the population. Every time the national government has tried to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies, the decision has caused backlash and unpopularity for those authorities. That is because subsidies have helped those with lower incomes by regulating the slowly increasing prices of food and public transport, while wages remain significantly low. As a result, Mexico is the second country in the world with the highest percentage of worker’s salary used for fuel.

Low wages are a trademark for Mexico. In 2016, the average monthly income of a US worker was $3,328 USD, while in Mexico it was only $318 USD. With the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) renegotiations taking place, representatives from Canada and United States have highlighted the huge contrast between the salary of Mexican workers and their counterparts from the North, pressuring Mexican authorities to establish fairer conditions for all the members of the treaty. If Mexico agrees to incorporate measures that increase wages for Mexican workers, it could also mean a reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels subsidies, allowing the national government to finally get rid of them.

Learn More

Fossil fuel subsidies in Mexico:

G20 subsidies to oil, gas and coal production:
https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9967.pdf
Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform in Mexico and Indonesia-International Energy Agency:
https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/PartnerCountrySeriesFossil_Fuel_Subsidy_Reform_Mexico_Indonesia_2016_WEB.pdf
How subsidies work in Mexico (Spanish):
http://www.animalpolitico.com/blogueros-inteligencia-publica/2013/06/13/lo-barato-nos-sale-muy-caro-los-subsidios-a-los-energeticos/
“Myths” around fuel subsidies (Spanish):
http://imco.org.mx/articulo_es/mitos-sobre-el-subsidio-la-gasolina/
Environmental perspective about fuel taxes (Spanish):
http://bibliodigitalibd.senado.gob.mx/bitstream/handle/123456789/3496/1%20reporte_45.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Gradual increase of fuel prices in Mexico and subsidies (Spanish):
http://www.dw.com/es/m%C3%A9xico-de-la-reforma-energ%C3%A9tica-al-gasolinazo/a-37082680

Wages in Mexico

Relationship between food and fuel prices and wages in Mexico (Spanish):
http://web.uaemex.mx/feconomia/Publicaciones/e402/EA13-Reyna-Miguel.pdf
“Canada PM talks wages on Mexico visit, amid NAFTA talks”-ABC News
http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/canada-pm-talks-wages-mexico-visit-amid-nafta-50469679
Renegotiation of NAFTA, wages and income distribution in Mexico (Spanish):
http://www.cronica.com.mx/notas/2017/1034635.html

Mexico Survey

It is clear that we are still far away from having a comprehensive idea about the attitudes, perceptions and concerns of people about climate change in Mexico.

Unlike other countries, Mexico has insufficient information about the perception, attitudes and knowledge its people have about climate change and global warming, and even less about the Paris Agreement.

The National Institute of Geography and Statistics (or INEGI), approaches this issue in its Home Survey about Science and Technology Perception, which takes place every two years and surveys one resident of every home older than 18 years old, living in urban centers with a population of more than 100,000 people. For the last survey, in 2015, the sample took up 3,200 homes from those urban areas, where they were asked about their level of comprehension about the terms “greenhouse effect” and “global warming”. As we see in the following table, most people consider their understanding of those terms as “regular” or “bad”:

Due to the general nature of this survey (perception of science and technology in Mexico), this is just a glimpse of climate change perception/knowledge in Mexico, since there isn’t any more climate change related information. Moreover, all the other studies available are either very localized—performed at a school, city or municipality—while those done at the national level have methodological issues that lead to a certain distrust of the data.

On a wider context, a poll carried out by GlobeScan in 2015 shows that 69% of the population in Mexico considers climate change as very serious. The results also show that only 31% of the public considered that Mexico should have played a leadership role during the COP-21 in Paris, in contrast with the 38% who said the same for the COP-15 in Copenhagen.

It is clear that we are still far away from having a comprehensive idea about the attitudes, perceptions and concerns of citizens about climate change in Mexico. The limited data that we have is also skewed towards the urban and adult. This risks ignoring other groups like rural populations that are mostly indigenous communities, as well as the knowledge and concerns of younger generations who have been more exposed to the issue of climate change.

Learn More

INEGI’s Home Survey about Science and Technology Perception, with methodology and results (in Spanish):
http://www.beta.inegi.org.mx/proyectos/enchogares/especiales/enpecyt/2015/default.html

INEGI’s Home Survey about Science and Technology Perception PDF template (in Spanish):
http://www.beta.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/proyectos/enchogares/especiales/enpecyt/2015/doc/enpecyt2015_cuest.pdf

GlobeScan’s press reléase:
https://www.globescan.com/news-and-analysis/press-releases/press-releases-2015/367-wealthy-countries-less-concerned-about-climate-change-global-poll.html

 

Mexico Strategies

Mexico: (1) Strengthen country pledge to the Paris Agreement,; (2) Make a stronger commitment to renewable energy; (3) Improve coordination of the environmental policies of different ministries

Mexico’s current unconditional pledge for the Paris Agreement is to reduce 22% of its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 2030, a figure that could rise to 36% under the condition of international support. Although praised by some for its comprehensive dimensions, this commitment won’t be enough to achieve the Agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 1.5°C. Moreover, so far current policies haven’t proved sufficient to reach Mexico’s intended goals.

To strengthen its pledge, Mexico should rely less on actions from other countries. Its conditional goal was designed with regional support from the US and Canada in mind, and given the current circumstances that seems highly unlikely. Therefore, Mexico should pledge to unconditionally achieve that 36% (or even more) reduction through its own means. Only by doing so, would Mexico be able to reach peak emissions by 2026.

Another key measure that Mexico should add to its pledge is a stronger commitment to renewable energy. By law Mexico is already focused on achieving 50% of clean energy by 2050. Including this goal in its Paris Agreement pledge would further demonstrate its commitment.

Finally, Mexico uses a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario of emissions based on economic growth in the absence of climate change policies, starting from 2013, the year when Mexico´s General Climate Change Law became applicable. Although it has been suggested that using a fixed base year is better due to the uncertainty of using BAU scenarios, that uncertainty can be reduced by establishing a fixed year for which emissions data are available, which is the case of Mexico, since a GHG emission inventory was published that year.

There also is a need to harmonize the different laws, policies and programs that have any impacts regarding climate change. This is because most of them are developed independently from one another and result in contradictory goals that public and private bodies use according to their own interests. For example, although the General Climate Change Law calls for reduction of emissions and increase of renewable energies, the Energy Reform of 2013 sets goals that promote oil and natural gas production, which would lead to an increase in GHG emissions. Cross-checking and reviewing these inconsistencies will enable the standardization of Mexico’s climate commitments throughout different sectors that normally wouldn’t integrate climate goals in their plans and policies. At the same time, existing programs should establish clear implementation and monitoring mechanisms, indicators, and targets, which are currently conspicuous by their absence. By doing so, it will be easier to have a continuous evaluation of Mexico’s performance implementing its Paris Agreement pledge and will allow us to understand what are the priority areas in need of attention in order to achieve the established goals.

Learn More

Mexico’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Mexico/1/MEXICO%20INDC%2003.30.2015.pdf

Mexico’s Climate Change Mid-Century Strategy submitted to the UNFCCC http://unfccc.int/files/focus/long-term_strategies/application/pdf/mexico_mcs_final_cop22nov16_red.pdf

Evaluation of INDC and policies by Climate Action Tracker
http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/mexico.html

“Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C”
https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v534/n7609/pdf/nature18307.pdf

“Beyond the targets: assessing the political credibility of pledges for the Paris Agreement”
http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/65670/1/Averchenkova-and-Bassi-2016.pdf

“El Régimen Internacional del Cambio Climático y los Retos para México” (Spanish).
https://colsan.repositorioinstitucional.mx/jspui/bitstream/1013/363/3/El%20r%C3%A9gimen%20internacional%20del%20cambio%20clim%C3%A1tico%20y%20los%20retos%20para%20M%C3%A9xico.pdf

“La XXI Conferencia Internacional sobre Cambio Climático (COP21) y sus implicaciones para México” (Spanish)
http://bibliodigitalibd.senado.gob.mx/bitstream/handle/123456789/3203/36.%20Temas%20Estrat%C3%A9gicos.%20Reporte%20Quincenal.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

“Seguridad, disponibilidad y sustentabilidad energética en México” (Spanish)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S018519181730020X

Mexico Renewable Energy

Mexico—No 100% 2050 commitment
Benchmark: 50%renewables by 2050

Geographically, Mexico is a country rich with sunlight, wind, geothermal and water resources, all with great potentials for the development of renewable energies. However, not only are the nation’s energy demands still heavily dependent on hydrocarbons, but also the government has committed to reach only 50% of renewable energy by 2050. The energy and industry sectors are aiming to reach 35% of clean energy by 2024, and 43% by 2030. The Ministry of Energy is looking to implement its long-term plans through the modernization of the energy sector and to provide more support to research, technology development, and human resources, as well as a focus on production of services and goods with clean energies. All of this is intended to become easier thanks to the Energy Reform of 2013, which has allowed the energy market to be open for private interests and more competition for the first time since 1938.

The issue with Mexico’s long-term targets is that they have remained the same since 2008, when Mexico passed a law establishing its clean energy generation targets, which includes more than just renewable sources. Sources also include cogeneration with natural gas and nuclear power. Carbon capture and storage in thermoelectric power plants are also considered under this definition. This law hasn’t changed since 2008, even with the government’s ambitious goals for the Paris Agreement negotiations and the enactment of an Energy Transition Law in 2015.

On a positive note, the 2008 Law included new short-term goals to facilitate the transition to clean energy, for example, to produce 9.5 GW of clean energy by 2018. The Ministry of Energy has also set minimum limits of clean energy consumption for big industrial consumers, under the risk of being fined if they don’t comply with them. Factories are required to utilize at least 5% of their total energy expenditure from clean energy by 2018, a percentage that will increase with time. Another example is the creation of clean energy certificates (CECs), issued by the Mexican government, that now work as binding requirements for specific participants, where those generating clean energy earn a CEC for every MWh of clean energy, and final users and electricity retailers can buy these CECs.

Several studies show that investment, installed capacity, and energy generation from renewable energy are growing slowly or even decreasing, and projections show that Mexico will keep depending greatly on fossil fuels. However, there are some projects in the works that might turn these numbers around. The biggest one of them is a solar power plant that started construction this year in the state of Coahuila, developed by the Italian multinational company “Enel”. This plant, the largest in Latin America, will have an installed capacity of 754 MW, and its goals are to generate more than 1,700 GW/h each year, enough to supply the consumption of 1.3 million homes, and to mitigate 780 thousand tonnes of CO2.

Learn More

Mexico’s Energy Reform and information on clean and renewable energies: https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/hepg/Papers/2017/Mexican%20Energy%20Reform%20Draft%201.23.pdf
Long-term and short-term goal implementation: Mexico’s commitments for climate change mitigation and adaptation for the period of 2020-2030 (in Spanish)
http://www.inecc.gob.mx/descargas/adaptacion/2015_indc_esp.pdf
Strategies for achieving the goal of 2050 (in Spanish): http://ecodie.cl/mexico-proyecta-alcanzar-el-50-de-generacion-de-energia-limpia-en-2050/
Short term actions (in Spanish) http://www.elfinanciero.com.mx/economia/mexico-va-por-50-de-electricidad-limpia-para-2050.html
Review of studies and projections on Mexico’s continued use of fossil fuels (in Spanish) http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/39751/S1501198_es.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Enel’s solar plant project:
In Spanish: http://www.excelsior.com.mx/nacional/2017/03/30/1155075
In English: https://www.enel.com/en/media/press/d201703-enel-begins-construction-of-the-americas-largest-solar-photovoltaic-plant.html

Mexico Success Project

Mexico—La Trinidad-Community Managed Forests

If you had known La Trinidad—a settlement of 704 people in the middle of the Northern Mountain Range of Oaxaca—during the 1960’s, you might have thought they were surely heading to an irreversible path of deforestation and loss of species. Managed by a paper mill, the forests of La Trinidad did not suffer only from environmental degradation and loss of carbon sinks. The community faced high rates of unemployment, bad labor conditions, and the impossibility of using and managing their own territory.

Fast-forward to today, and you will see a completely different picture: the forest is communally owned and managed, and the community determines its use and how the profits should be spent. This scheme has allowed them to set sustainable logging regulations, promote reforestation practices, and preserve forest resources. Moreover, the businesses derived from this context, like furniture carpentry and eco-tourism enterprises, provide employment opportunities that promote productive diversification, the improvement of public services and infrastructure, and are thought to be related to the low rates of migration from this region.

Through its struggle against the paper mill during the 1980’s and returning to the communal management of resources, the community of La Trinidad was able to achieve forest conservation and reduction of deforestation, even before the inclusion of mitigation strategies in national policies. Their work has been recognized in recent years as both national and international institutions from the government, civil society and private enterprises have partnered with them to develop projects and ensure that this trend keeps going.

Like La Trinidad, most of the forest cover in Mexico (around 80%) belongs collectively to 8,500 communities that usually follow similar conservation schemes. This is reflected in the national reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion and use that went from 13.4% in 1998 to 6.3% in 2010, being the only sector that has achieved mitigation at a national scale. This positive trend sets Mexico on the way to achieve its Paris Agreement National Determined Contribution (NDC) pledge of 0% rate of deforestation by the year 2030. This will also contribute to its meeting its unconditional Paris Agreement commitment of reducing 22% of GHG emissions by the same year using a Business As Usual scenario of emission projections based on economic growth in the absence of climate change policies starting from 2013.

Communal management of forests is not unique to Mexico, but it is common practice in several countries of the Global South, and it is a model that can be copied to reduce emissions due to deforestation in other countries.

Learn More

About La Trinidad.
In Mexico, forests deliver for jobs and climate commitments: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/05/10/in-mexico-forests-deliver-for-jobs-and-climate-commitments
Emigración en reversa: de Estados Unidos a hacer muebles en Oaxaca (Spanish):
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/08/31/reverse-migration-furniture-forests-oaxaca

En La Trinidad, explotación racional del bosque (Spanish):
http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2016/07/05/sociedad/036n1soc

An Analysis of Forest-Based Offset Production in Oaxaca, Mexico Based on Critiques of the Forest Carbon Market: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2681/d1cf45e19f917b93ba08ca5a42b51aef265f.pdf

Emissions in Mexico
Mexico’s Fifth National Communication to the UNFCCC (Spanish, Executive summary in English): http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/mexnc5s.pdf
Mexican Report on Climate Change. Volume 3. Greenhouse Gas Emission and Mitigation (Spanish): http://www.pincc.unam.mx/libro_reportemex/reporte_mexicano_vol_III.pdf
Mexico’s INDC for the Paris Agreement: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Mexico/1/MEXICO%20INDC%2003.30.2015.pdf

Mexico Checkup

Mexico—Falling Behind

Mexico has had continuous participation in the international climate change arena since the UNFCCC was established back in 1993. However, one can question whether Mexico’s engagement at the international level has translated into effective climate change policy.

In ‘Not on the “Paris Track”: Climate Protection Efforts in Developing Countries’, authors Jann Lay and Sebastian Renner stress that Mexico’s ambitious INDC pledge to the Paris Agreement has not resulted in effective government action. They highlight that although Mexico has stopped investing in further coal plants, it is relying on gas reserves to serve the increasing energy demands that are expected for future decades. The introduction by the government of energy taxes has been deemed, “too small to make any measurable difference to emissions”.

In the book, 21 visions of the COP21 by Norma Patricia Muñoz Sevilla, Isaac Azuz-Adeath, and Maxime Le Bail, the authors address adaptation measures in the chapter, National policy on adaptation and the Paris Agreement. In this chapter, the authors explain that incorporating adaptation measures to the Paris Agreement is a milestone, but implementing them in Mexico will be a challenge for a number of reasons. Focusing on coastal areas, they highlight some of the following barriers: lack of funding, limited technical and planning capacities, disconnection among different governmental institutions and other sectors, political conflicts associated with the party affiliation of governors and decision makers, among others.

Mexico’s INDCs have received “medium” ratings both from Climate Action Tracker and the Citizens Climate Agreement Campaign, reflecting their ambitious character and problems related to achieving them. Important issues to highlight are the lack of a pledge towards 100% renewable energy, low support for investments in renewable energy, as well as the absence of a cross-sectoral effort to implement environmental policy. The Transport, Energy and Agricultural sectors seem to be working independently of what the Ministry of Environment is trying to achieve.

Overall, Mexico is backsliding in relation to its agreement to implement the Paris Agreement. Mexico’s economic development plans clash with its written commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to future climate scenarios. The challenges remaining, including a broad range of political conditions that affect the country, are preventing it from effectively implementing the actions needed not only to meet its intended contributions but also to undertake a truly transformative program that tackles climate change.

Learn More

Article: Not on the “Paris Track”: Climate Protection Efforts in Developing Countries (December 2016)
 https://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/system/files/publications/gf_global_1608_en.pdf
Book Chapter: National policy on adaptation and the Paris Agreement (Política nacional de adaptación ante el Acuerdo de París) (2016): Chapter XI pp. 173-185
http://www.pincc.unam.mx/DOCUMENTOS/21visiones/21_visiones.pdf
Climate Action Tracker. Mexico: http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/mexico.html
Top 25 Greenhouse Gas Emitting Countries’ Paris Agreement Pledges (with rating): http://climatescorecard.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Top-25-Greenhouse-Gas-Emitter-Paris-Pledges.pdf
Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN): “Camino a la implementación de las Contribuciones Nacionales” (In Spanish): https://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/DT_camino-de-implementacion-de-INDCs.pdf

Mexico Emission Reduction Policy

Special Program on Climate Change (PECC)

The Special Program on Climate Change, PECC, is a federal level policy first published in 2009 as a result of the continuous involvement of the Mexican government in national and international debates surrounding climate change. It sets a long-term agenda, while also presenting short and medium-term plans. Currently Mexico is working with the updated PECC 2014-2018, following the PECC that lasted from 2009 to 2012.

Derived from the General Law on Climate Change and the National Strategy of Climate Change, and aligned with the government’s National Development Plan, the program presents mitigation and adaptation targets that need to be achieved by different federal agencies, identifying their strategic roles. This involves using the same indicators and measurements for different sectors and feeding them to an online system from which the Intersecretarial Commission on Climate Change can evaluate progress.

The PECC has been praised for setting cross-sectoral goals that bring together federal agencies to consider different climate change variables, such as gender, in its targets. It serves as an example for the creation of climate change programs at the state level. However, it has been noted that it remains too vague in certain aspects, that its measuring methodologies increase uncertainty, and that it lacks a way of sharing its advances with the public. Nevertheless, the measures implemented after the creation of the PECC have been linked to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. By following the recommendations and suggestions presented in the evaluations of the PECC, it has the potential to contribute to Mexico’s plan to face climate change.

Learn More

PECC 2014-2018 (in English and Spanish)
https://www.iea.org/media/workshops/2015/15thghgtradingworkshop/SpecialClimateChangeProgram20142018Englishversion.pdf and http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5342492&fecha=28/04/2014

Progress report of PECC 2009-2012 (in Spanish)
http://www.afd.fr/webdav/shared/PORTAILS/PAYS/MEXIQUE/Documents/PECC_folleto_esp_web_opt.pdf

Evaluation of PECC 2009-2012 (in Spanish)
http://imco.org.mx/wp-content/uploads/2013/2/studie_2_pecc_web_ok4.pdf

Analysis of the PECC 2014-2018 (in English)
https://www.nrdc.org/experts/amanda-maxwell/guest-blog-inspecting-mexicos-latest-climate-change-plan

Mexico Extreme Weather Event

Hurricane Patricia

From a tropical storm to a Category 5 hurricane in just a matter of hours, Hurricane Patricia astonished Mexico and the world on October 23, 2015, as it became the most intense tropical cyclone in the Western Hemisphere and one of the strongest storms ever recorded globally. After reaching the west coast of Mexico, it lost its intensity and strength as it moved towards a mountainous terrain with drier air. At 7:00 am the next day, it had become a tropical storm again.

A great disaster in the making, Patricia’s impacts were far from what was expected thanks to the coming together of several factors: it was a small and fast storm with less water and a reduced area of influence; its path took it through a sparsely populated region; and finally, a surprisingly preventive approach carried out by different levels of the government, local businesses and communities, contributed to ameliorate the potential damaging effects of the storm.

Although it only had a few casualties, Patricia exerted great pressure on the rural communities that it hit. It caused landslides and uprooted trees, while affecting roads, highways, houses and service centers. One of the biggest impacts was for local farmers, as 12,500 hectares of crops were lost due to the hurricane. In total, 10,000 people were affected, and the government calculated the costs of recovery to be approximately more than a billion Mexican pesos.

After the hurricane, members of the Marines, the Red Cross and other civil defense groups worked on rescue actions within most of the affected communities. One year later, money from the Fund for Emergency Response (FONDEN) was used to build only 48 new homes out of the 3,000 that were damaged. Although the new houses followed the established norms to reduce their risk of being destroyed and cut off from service provision, the rest of the victims in the region have received inadequate and sparse materials to reconstruct their homes and have yet to see compensation for the lost agricultural produce.

As shown in the case of Hurricane Patricia, the government still approaches disaster response with a disproportionate deployment of efforts and resources towards post-disaster military assistance, rather than the implementation of risk reduction measures. This is even more noticeable in the gaps between climate change policies and civil protection laws, where there is a lack of cross-sectoral approaches that will be needed as climate change brings more frequent and intense events like Patricia.

Learn More

Hurricane Patricia hits Mexico: http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/34616094

How Patricia, the strongest hurricane on record, killed so few people:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2015/10/26/how-patricia-the-strongest-hurricane-ever-recorded-may-have-miraculously-killed-no-one/?utm_term=.549d774bfd0f

On the disappointment of the victims of Patricia (in Spanish): http://www.ntrguadalajara.com/post.php?id_nota=37028

The interplay between climate change and disaster risk reduction policy: evidence from Mexico: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17477891.2016.1211506

Mexico Media Organizations

Broadcast Media

Mexico’s No. 1 TV and radio broadcaster, Televisa, is a multimedia company owned by the Azcárraga family. Televisa has become a television monopoly, controlling 70% of the broadcast television market. In addition, by broadcasting several channels through free-to-air services, its coverage reaches almost 95% of Mexican homes, which rely on this mean of communication to inform themselves about the main events going on in Mexico and the world.

In 2010, during the World Climate Summit that took place at the 16th Conference of the Parts (COP16) in Cancún, México, Emilio Azcárraga Jean, current chairman and CEO of the company, declared that Televisa was committed to use its broadcasting hours to transmit environmentally friendly initiatives. He also asserted the crucial role that the media has as an agent to communicate the causes and consequences of climate change. Although great coverage was given at that time due to the location of the Conference and the involvement of several politicians, the presence of climate change has been significantly reduced from Televisa’s main news segments, only to be picked up again during important international events such as the Paris Agreement.

Content Samples:

Currently, ForoTV, one of Televisa’s news outlet, has several programs with information about climate change. One example is the program Foro Global (Global Forum), where journalist Genaro Lozano discusses international news. In the previous month, they covered President Donald Trump’s actions in relation to climate change, as well as a recent declaration from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research about the relationship between climate change related events and armed conflicts.
Main page: http://www.televisa.com/
Forbes profile: http://www.forbes.com/companies/grupo-televisa/
Noticieros televisa: http://noticieros.televisa.com/acerca-de-televisa-news/
Azcárraga’s participation in the World Climate Summit: http://www.televisa.com/noticias-corporativas/232461/televisa-cumbre-climatica/ (Spanish)
http://www.televisa.com/eng/corporate-news/233653/televisa-world-climate-summit/
(English)
Climate change coverage: http://noticieros.televisa.com/?s=cambio+climatico
Alberto Vega’s article: http://noticieros.televisa.com/videos/cambio-climatico-un-asunto-de-seguridad-nacional/
Main page: http://www.televisa.com/
Forbes profile: http://www.forbes.com/companies/grupo-televisa/
Noticieros televisa: http://noticieros.televisa.com/acerca-de-televisa-news/
Azcárraga’s participation in the World Climate Summit: http://www.televisa.com/noticias-corporativas/232461/televisa-cumbre-climatica/ (Spanish)
http://www.televisa.com/eng/corporate-news/233653/televisa-world-climate-summit/
(English)
Climate change coverage: http://noticieros.televisa.com/?s=cambio+climatico
Alberto Vega’s article: http://noticieros.televisa.com/videos/cambio-climatico-un-asunto-de-seguridad-nacional

Contact: Alberto Vega is the reporter in charge of the last story. Email: alberto.vega.acosta@gmail.com

Print Media

Proceso is a weekly print and online magazine of socio-political analysis and opinion. Founded by journalist Julio Scherer García in 1976, Proceso’s open and critical coverage about politicians and the government (contrary to Televisa’s style) has given it a high prestige among the Mexican media. The current director is Rafael Rodríguez Castañeda, with Salvador Corro as editorial assistant.

Although the company that owns the magazine, CISA Comunicación e Información, S.A. de C.V, hasn’t expressed openly about its position towards climate change or the Paris Agreement, the contents of Proceso reflect those of Televisa, with climate change related publications mostly covering international conferences and summits (with a high peak during the COP16 in Cancún), the ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement, and declarations by government officials.

Nevertheless, some of the climate change related articles published in the magazine follow its critical and analytical line. For example, in an analysis of the Paris Agreement, contributor Olga Pellicer asks why everyone was not so optimistic during the aftermath of the conference. She presents the success of the Agreement in terms of what was achieved compared to previous years, but also adds the weaknesses in terms of accountability and the clarity of certain mechanisms, while explaining the difficulties of international cooperation.

Content Samples:
Main page: http://www.proceso.com.mx/
History: http://www.proceso.com.mx/historia
Analysis of Proceso’s COP16 coverage: http://docplayer.es/19750592-Universidade-catolica-portuguesa-la-responsabilidad-social-de-los-medios-de-comunicacion-en-la-proteccion-del-medio-ambiente.html
Climate change coverage: http://www.proceso.com.mx/buscar?cx=015816897690063319058%3Ak3acgl6raqy&q=cambio+climatico&cof=FORID%3A11&locale-search=es-MX
Olga Pellicer’s article: http://www.proceso.com.mx/424946/cambio-climatico-irremediable-o-controlado

Contact: Mailing address: Fresas #13 Colonia del Valle , Mexico City, Mexico. 03100.
Online editor: Alejandro Caballero, Email: acaballero@proceso.com.mx, Tel: +52 (55) 5636-2010

Online Media

Animal Politico is an all online political news site that started in 2010. It was created by several journalists under the publishing house Editorial Animal. As an independent journalism initiative, they rely on investors that, as of today, haven’t showed any ties with political parties, such as Elephant Publishing, a Miami-based company. Moreover, they also rely in crowdsourcing campaigns to support their activities. Daniel Moreno is the general manager of the news site, with Mael Vallejo as an editorial director.

Unlike the previous two entries, Animal Politico lists environmental issues as one of the main topics they strive to cover. This is reflected on the publication of a broader coverage of climate change related articles, although in general the main pieces resemble the approach of Televisa and Proceso.  As an example of the variety that Animal Politico offers, recently they published a more light-hearted article about the psychological effects that climate change researchers might develop, like depression, addictions or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, as a result of encountering incredulity and lack of response from the public. The note ends arguing that rather than promoting depression or inaction, their goal is to create awareness and a call to the government to propose responses that address climate change.

Content Samples:
Main page: http://www.animalpolitico.com/
About: www.animalpolitico.com/quienes-somos/
Rise of online journalism in Mexico: http://www.niemanlab.org/2012/06/how-online-journalisms-shaken-up-political-coverage-in-mexico/
Climate change coverage: http://www.animalpolitico.com/?s=cambio+clim%C3%A1tico
Claudia Godoy’s article: http://www.animalpolitico.com/2017/02/investigadores-padecen-traumas-psicologicos-estudiar-cambio-climatico/

Contact: Email:  info@animalpolitico.com, Tel: +52 (55) 5207-1407
Claudia Godoy, reporter of the last article: claudia@clicknecesario.com

Mexico Subnational Best Practices

Regions/Provinces/States

Baja California—Baja California is a pioneer state in renewable energy developments. In 2010 it participated in the building of 200 houses with solar panels. Moreover, the same year the wind park “La Rumorosa I” opened with a capacity of 10 MW. There is an on-going energy efficiency program that replaces air conditioners, refrigerators, light bulbs and installs thermal insulation in buildings.

Regarding the transport sector, the cities of Tijuana and Mexicali also implemented a BRT system. Thanks to a State Reforestation Program, three plant nurseries were created in the cities of Tijuana, Mexicali and El Hongo with the goal of planting 1 million trees per year.

Contact
Raúl Alberto Tovar Gerardo, Air Quality Department, Secretary of Environmental Protection of the State of Baja California.
Telephone: +52 (686) 566-22-68 Ext: 109
Email: artovar@baja.gob.mx

Chiapas—In 2010, the state of Chiapas established REDD+ (Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) committees to collaborate in the development of a REDD+ framework at regional and local levels. In 2011, it joined the R20 (Regions of Climate) Group, a coalition of sub-national governments and other actors that implements low-carbon and climate-resilient projects. It also became part of the Governor’s Climate and Forest Taskforce (GCF), an international group of 16 states with high coverage of tropical forests.

Contact
José Alfredo Ruíz Samayoa, Undersecretary of Climate Change, Secretary of Environment and Natural History of the State of Chiapas.
Address: Calzada Cerro Hueco S/N., El Zapotal C.P. 29094 Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas
Telephone: +52 (961) 614700 Ext. 51008
Email: cambioclimatico@semahn.chiapas.gob.mx

Associations

Broadly, in Mexico there are around 20 provinces or municipalities that have clear and effective mitigation and adaptation strategies which were developed with the help of ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability. ICLEI has also been involved at the state level, where in collaboration with the National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change and state governments they have developed State Climate Change Action Programs. The states of Quintana Roo, Yucatán, and Campeche also established their own Regional Commission of Climate Change to coordinate actions and strategies.

Of the 32 states of Mexico, 25 are associated with ICLEI, while 66 municipalities have taken sustainable development actions from ICLEI’s program.  40 cities or municipalities have also signed the Mexico City Pact. However, only 12 have subscribed to the Pact’s idea of globally measurable, reportable, and verifiable (MRV) local climate actions, which must be reported on the Carbon-Climate Registry platform.

Cities

Mexico City—Mexico City has considerable experience in implementing mitigation strategies in various sectors. In 2010, it hosted and promoted the Global Cities Covenant on Climate or “The Mexico City Pact”, a voluntary initiative of mayors and local authority representatives that aims to advance climate actions. Some of the mechanisms implemented to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions during that period were the following:
•    Approval on a new Norm for the Use of Solar Power, which resulted in the installation of photovoltaic cells in parks, use of solar power for Metro (subway) and Metrobús (a Bus Rapid Transit-BRT system) facilities and the publication of an Energy Efficiency Program.
•    New policies to improve air quality led to the substitution of taxi fleets, acquisition of middle-sized buses of more capacity, increased restrictions on the ‘Hoy No Circula’ Program (restriction of diesel and gasoline powered vehicles depending on the day of the week, the last digit on the vehicle’s license plate and the efficiency of their engines) and the installation of new Metrobús lanes.
•    Reforestation campaigns.
•    Expansion of the composting plant at the Bordo Poniente landfill.
•    Wastewater management.
•    Improvement of buildings and housing units.

Mexico City’s Climate Action Program 2014-2020 sets a reduction goal of 8 MtCO2 eq., with an added 2 MtCO2 eq. of indirect mitigation.

Contact
Oscar Alejandro Vázquez Martínez, Director of the Climate Change and Clean Development Processes Program, Secretary of Environment of Mexico City.
Telephone: +52 (55) 5278 9931 ext. 6852
Email: ovazquez@cdmx.gob.mx