Indonesia Extreme Weather Event

Widespread Fires

Between June and October of 2015, 127,000 fires engulfed 2.6 million hectares of land in Indonesia, tripling its carbon emissions. Draining peatlands and mangroves for agricultural production was the main driver of Indonesia’s summer fires. These fires would not occur without human intervention. 40% of the fires in 2015 occurred on peatland. Peatland, as one of the densest carbon stores on the planet, releases huge amounts of CO2 and the 21 times more powerful greenhouse gas, methane. Peat fires release ten times more methane than other land fires. Once peat catches on fire, it can continue to burn for months. This sustained burning and haze production leads to a “volcano effect” in which a decrease in plant productivity (as a result of the haze blocking out sunlight and polluting the air) leads to falling biodiversity. The fall in plant productivity and biodiversity reduces the ability of ecosystems to recover after shocks. With enough repeated stress, ecosystems can reach a tipping point of being unable to recover.

Indonesia’s air quality during the fires exceeded the maximum level on the international pollutant standards index (PSI); three times the level of hazardous. This incredibly poor air quality is reflected in the health consequences of the haze. The fires released fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causing 500,000 cases of acute respiratory infection in Southeast Asia and exposing 43 million Indonesians to smog. In a recent study from the journal Environmental Research Letters, the 2015 haze resulted in an estimated 100,000 deaths. The economic impacts of the haze have been great as well, estimated to be between 50-60 billion USD. The government’s disaster agency put the costs of the fire and haze at 35 billion USD, cancelling out all of Indonesia’s economic growth for that year.

Indonesia’s National Agency for Disaster Management (BNBP) is responsible for handling fires. BNBP has established provincial, municipal, and district level agencies charged with disaster management. BNBP seeks to enhance the capacities of communities and government to reduce risk of disasters, mitigation, and emergency response. Capacity building includes early warning systems, a disaster information database (DiBi), a standard for risk assessment, education and training, and the establishment of emergency operation centers. Indonesia’s Balai Besar Pengujian Perangkat Telekomunikasi is doing important work to expand technological capacities in disaster warning. SRC-PB/INDRRA is Indonesia’s stand-by force for emergency response that BNBP deploys during disasters. Further, President Widodo has instituted moratoriums on deforestation. Creating a single national map of land tenure is underway to enforce these moratoriums and assign responsibility for fire monitoring and reporting to owners. This policy, called One Map, pools together land and satellite data to help identify hotspots—areas in which fires are likely to occur. Conservation International’s Firecast Initiative as well as WRI’s GIS program (GFW) are contributing to the monitoring of hotspots. The Peatland Restoration Agency, created under the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry, builds canals to restore drained and degraded peatlands. Indonesia has a significant policy and regulatory framework to prevent future fires. Enforcement of these laws and reducing corruption is necessary for success.

Indonesia Media Organizations

Broadcast Media

Ruai TV is a lesser known television station, but its engagement with local communities in reporting on issues affecting their control of land makes the station unique. Locals, communities, and indigenous people will text the station –as well as government officials and the police– when, for example, companies violate legal obligations and exploit land to which they have no right. Up until 2010, some 200 conflicts between communities and palm oil producers were reported across Indonesia. RuaiSMS, developed by Knight Internationalism Journalism in a partnership between Riau TV and Internews, is a form of participatory monitoring that Ruai TV uses to empower grass roots organizing and bring those often left out of the media into public discourse and discussing issues that are often overlooked or underreported. For indigenous Indonesians, RuaiSMS in South Kalimantan has allowed for communication of customary territory control violations. In many of these areas, communication infrastructure is underdeveloped or nonexistent. However, mobile phone penetration is quite high –68% in 2009– making RuaiSMS an effective communication and engagement strategy. Ruai TV’s RuaiSMS is improving government and company accountability.

Content Samples:

Ruai TV has reported on climate and pollution, especially when the environmental problems cause direct damage to the public. It has reported on the extreme forest and peatland fires that often occur during Indonesia’s dry season. Riau TV reported on the difficulties putting out the blaze due to a lack of water sources. The reporting has also highlighted the deleterious effects of the smoke on public health. In one report, Ruai TV with its partners provided the SMS frontline program that allowed a civilian to communicate to the public and the police that the Kapuas Hulu District government ordered PT RAP (Riau Agrotama Plantation), a palm oil company, to stop illegal forest clearing outside their concession. By drawing attention to the district order, the police moved to take action. Riau TV, Internews and Knight International helped the civilian install the SMS system and trained other civilian journalists in how to monitor the palm oil company. Ruai TV is an excellent news station for primary source material relating to environmental and climate issues, especially from the local level.
Website link: http://www.ruaitv.co.id/ and link to citizen journalism program: http://www.ruaitv.co.id/category/ruaisms/

Contact: Office address: Jalan 28 Oktober No 25-26 Siantan Hulu, Pontianak Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
Office Tel: (+62 561) 88 1983 / 88 4524

Online Media

Mongabay.org was founded in California in 2012 as a nonprofit organization by Rhett Ayers Butler, a conservation journalist. It operates extensively in Indonesia, publishing in both Indonesian and English. It employs Indonesian journalists who work on the ground and recruits volunteers as well. Most of its funding comes from grants and donations. Mongabay.org’s first project was Mongabay – Indonesia. It has a network of correspondents in 30 cities across Indonesia. Mongabay’s focus is on environment and especially tropical rainforests and so often discusses the Paris Agreement in its articles. Mongabay is a very responsive news source to current events, often being the primary source for current environmental issues. It has been a great resource for Climate Scorecard research. As a definitively conservationist news source, it supports the Paris Agreement and strongly backs government climate change policies, even blowing whistles when those policies are poorly implemented or infringed upon.

Content Samples:

Mongabay has recently published articles on illegal forest burning that benefits local elites seeking to collect rents or derive benefits from palm oil enterprises seeking cleared. This particular article drew upon academic writing. Mongabay also draws on Indonesian NGOs, research organizations, and locals who provide Mongabay with primary source information on the climate. In another article, Mongabay reported on the amount of carbon that would be protected from a government peatland development moratorium at 5.5-7.8 gigatons of carbon dioxide through 2030, but also raises issues with the regulation’s failure to protect peat domes; making the moratorium potentially futile. Mongabay provides important, up-to-date and very in-depth information on climate related issues.

Website link: http://www.mongabay.co.id/
Article on illegal burning: https://news.mongabay.com/2017/01/how-local-elites-earn-money-from-burning-land-in-indonesia/
Article on effects of GHG emissions from fires, the public health effects, and the effectiveness of the government moratorium:
https://news.mongabay.com/2016/12/green-groups-raise-red-flags-over-jokowis-widely-acclaimed-haze-law/

Contact: Program Editor: Ridzki R. Sigit (rrsigit@mongabay.co.id)
Editor and writer on climate: Rahmadi Rahmat (Rahmadi@mongabay.co.id)

Print Media

Media Indonesia is the third largest newspaper in Indonesia. Kompas Daily is the highest circulated newspaper. Media Indonesia is headquartered in Jakarta, owned by the Media Group. Its director is Lestari Moerdijat. In a study from 2016, Media Indonesia provided substantially different climate change reporting than Kompas. Kompas’s discussion of climate change is largely focused on international news; only 25% focused on the Indonesian context. Media Indonesia’s coverage of climate change in the Indonesian context was 81% of climate change articles. Media Indonesia also focuses on climate change more often than does Kompas.

Media Indonesia is probably the best high-circulation Indonesian-language newspaper source for climate change articles.

Content Samples:

Media Indonesia has reported in depth on the government moratorium on peatland development. In one article, Media Indonesia reported on the secretary general of the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry enforcing the moratorium. The Secretary General halted the opening of a canal in PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP)’s concession. Media Indonesia also discussed how the company would be involved in restoring drained peatland with the Peatland Restoration Agency (BRG) and the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry. Media Indonesia also recently released an article on how peatland destruction by foreign companies greatly increases the haze over the country and contributes to global warming. The article quoted the vice president calling on foreign actors to contribute to the restoration of peat, given the lack of incentives for foreign companies to follow regulations and the importance of Indonesia’s forests as the “lungs of the world”.

Website link: http://www.mediaindonesia.com/
Article on moratorium enforcement with RAPP: http://www.mediaindonesia.com/news/read/66223/rapp-hentikan-pembukaan-kanal-lahan-gambut/2016-09-09
Article on foreign companies contributing to illegal logging and the responsibility of
the international community in restoring and protecting Indonesia’s forests and peatlands: http://www.mediaindonesia.com/news/read/68328/indonesia-tuntut-perusahaan-asing-restorasi-lahan-gambut/2016-09-22
Study on Media Indonesia and other newspapers in Indonesia: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/arS240588311630003X?np=y&npKey=1c406ec21b0c0b3919e9f2772d53cd592a086fa25b18564db36df8edd48ae2b3

Contact: Office address: PT. Citra Media Nusa Purnama Jl. Pilar Mas Raya Kav A-D Kedoya Selatan, Kebon Jeruk Jakarta Barat, DKI Jakarta 11520, Indonesia
Office Tel: +62 21 5821303, Email: redaksi.micom@mediaindonesia.com

 

Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Indonesia Subnational Best Practices

Cities

Jakarta—Jakarta has committed to reduce its emissions by 30% in the community and by 30% in the government based on 2005 levels, and to shift its energy use to 30% renewables by 2030. Jakarta has already taken several mitigation and adaptation actions. The city has installed a solar power plant in Kepulauan Seribu with a capacity up to 50 KwP. Bantar Gebang Landfill’s composting center contributes up to 3.867 tons of CO2eq emissions reductions and is capable of processing 60 tons of organic waste daily. Bantar Genbang Landfill is well known as a massive and overwhelmed dump. These initiatives are promising and necessary. Jakarta’s streetlights are powered through solar energy. The production capacity from this project, 36.4 kwp, reduces emissions by 6.8 tons of CO2eq. Jakarta has also finished its master plan for wastewater management to create sustainable water cycling. Its current projects include expanding urban forests, installing flood control measures, and developing solar energy installations to power all of Jakarta’s schools and government buildings. Jakarta is also expanding another recycling and composting center (Cakung) to take the burden off of Bantar Gebang. In addition, between 2012 and 2023, Jakarta plans to develop three waste-to-energy plants. The proposed plants will have the capacity to process 5,000 tons of waste per day. Jakarta is also developing a Green Building Implementation policy to ensure that new construction reduces the use of natural resources, sources local building materials, and reduces its carbon footprint. Jakarta is part of the Compact of Mayors, the Municipal Solid Waste Initiative, and the C40 Cities Clean Bus Initiative.

Contact
BPLHD Jakarta (Environmental Management Agency – Jakarta)
Address: Jl. Casablanca Kav. 1 Kuningan Jakarta Selatan
Telephone: 62-21-5209651, 62-21-5209653, 62-21-5209645
Email: bplhd@jakarta.go.id ; webmin_bplhd@yahoo.com
Website: http://bplhd.jakarta.go.id/ and http://sigd.jakarta.go.id/

Learn More
On Jakarta’s actions to reduce its emissions: http://carbonn.org/data/report/commitments/?tx_datareport_pi1[uid]=743 and http://climateaction.unfccc.int/city/jakarta/indonesia
On problems associated with the Bantar Gebang Landfill: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/11/07/jakarta-keep-using-bantar-gebang-landfill-despite-conflict.html
On the three new waste-to-energy plants: http://thejakartapost.com/news/2016/05/20/jakarta-set-to-develop-waste-to-energy-plants.html

Bandung—Bandung seeks to reduce emissions by 30% by 2030 compared to a 2013 business-as-usual scenario. It is currently performing an energy audit to determine energy use between residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. Bandung facilities make up 37% of government emissions. They are working on an Eco Office project to reduce emissions from buildings that make up 63% of emissions. They are installing 2,000 biodigester facilities by 2018 that can each process two tons of trash per day. Bandung is currently implementing a tax incentive for those who allocate land for water reservoirs. The city has developed and implemented many emissions reductions initiatives and plans. These include: Bandung Low Carbon Society, Bandung City’s Climate Change Action Plan, Environmental Management and Protection Plan, Bandung City Transport Master Plan and Bandung Urban Mobility Project to develop the transportation system, and others.

Contact
Chandra Budi Hertyasning, Green Building Council Indonesia – Bandung
Address: Setrasari Plaza Blok C-1 No 45, Jl Ters.  Jl Ter. Dr. Sutami-Bandung, Jawa Barat
Telephone: 62-81-22053668
Email: bandung@gbcindonesia.org
Website: http://www.gbcindonesia.org/

Learn More
On Bandung’s actions to reduce its emissions: http://carbonn.org/data/report/commitments/?tx_datareport_pi1%5Buid%5D=738
On Bandung’s different plans and strategies: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/urban-rural-and-regional-development/green-growth-in-bandung-indonesia_9789264264113-en

Bogor—Bogor plans to reduce CO2e emissions from government operations by 33% by 2020 compared to 2010 business-as-usual levels. It has adopted a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) for its transportation system, which includes a bus fleet, increased public transportation corridors, and pedestrian infrastructure. This initiative is seeking funding. They are currently working on Trans Pakuan; a rapid bus transportation system. Bogor has completed a project to make commuting 20% by pedestrians and cyclists. Further, Bogor is targeting 22 kilometers of pedestrian paths which will be built through 19-stages from 2012 – 2020. Bogor is in the process of developing a smart street lighting system, replacing all lighting with LEDs by 2019. It is developing a system of integrated community sanitation facilities that recovers methane for biodigesting and energy production. 43 of these facilities have been built so far. Many new construction projects after 2015 in Bogor must meet their Green Building Concept. Bogor has integrated its Low Emission Development Strategy deeply into its 5-year Mid-Term Development Plan (also known as RPJMD).

Contact
BPLHD Bogor (Environmental Management Agency – Bogor)
Mail: Jl. Senam No. 1 Bogor
Telephone: 02518340057
Email: bplh@kotabogor.go.id
Website: http://bplh.kotabogor.go.id/

Learn More
On Bogor’s actions to reduce its emissions: http://carbonn.org/data/report/commitments/?tx_datareport_pi1[uid]=582
On Bogor’s Low Emission Development strategy in its RPJMD: http://urbanleds.iclei.org/index.php?id=188

Associations

The Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) is a network of ten cities in India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. They are developing “a range of activities that improve the ability of the cities to withstand, to prepare for, and to recover from the projected impacts of climate change.” The needs and priorities of each city determine the approaches. The 10 core cities have been expanded to 50 across the network with their own resilience strategies. Two of the core cities—Bandar Lampung and Semarang—are located in Indonesia. Other cities in Indonesia that have been involved with the network include: Blitar, Cirebon, Palembang, Pekalongan, Probolinggo and Tarakan.
Contact
https://www.acccrn.net/country/indonesia

Compact of Mayors—There are eighteen cities in Indonesia that have signed the Compact of Mayors: Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Bandung, Banjarmasin, Bogor, Bontang, Jakarta, Jambi, Kendari, Kupang, Malang, Mataram, Padang, Probolinngo, Sukabumi, Surabaya, Tanjungpinang, and Tarakan City.

Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force (CGF)—There are seven provinces (Aceh, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, Papua, West Kalimantan, and West Papua) in Indonesia that are part of the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force (GCF) which is a collaboration between multiple countries to reduce emissions from rural development, promote low emission rural development, and reduce emissions from deforestation and land-use (REDD+). This network encompasses 25% of the world forests. This 25% includes half of Indonesia’s forests. Papua alone has 1.2% of the world forest area.

Learn More
http://www.gcftaskforce.org/about/ and to see Papua’s REDD+ implementation: http://www.gcftaskforce-database.org/ReddImplementation/Papua

Every province in Indonesia has adopted a RAD-GRK. They can be compared and assessed here: http://cait.wri.org/indonesia/compare?selected=Aceh

 

Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Indonesia Leaders and Opponents

Government Official
Siti Nurbaya Bakar
Minister of the Environment and Forestry (MoEF)

Deep reforms in the Forestry Ministry have been underway since President Widodo’s merger of the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Forestry. These reforms have been led by the new and first Minister of Environment and Forestry, Siti Nurbaya Bakar who is a reform-minded bureaucrat with experience in other planning agencies. The Forestry Ministry of the previous administration was adversarial to indigenous rights; they objected to customary land claims as they would diminish the land that the Forestry Ministry controls. The new MoEF supports, for instance, the 2013 Constitutional Court ruling that separated customary land from State Forest Areas. The MoEF’s approval of the ruling demonstrates the success of Widodo’s and Bakar’s reforms; the ruling diminishes the land area that the MoEF controls. The Environment and Forestry’s willingness to give up some of their power shows how the ministry has refocused on promoting national interests rather than their own power.
Since Siti’s appointment to Minister of the Environment and Forestry, there have been major reforms and many new initiatives. As it was agreed between the MoEF and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources before the COP-22 meeting in Marrakesh, the MoEF will account for 17.23% of the 29% of Indonesia’s reduction emission reduction commitment, and 23.13% of the 41% commitment. Meanwhile, the energy sector would respectively account for 11% and 14% of those figures. Siti Nurbaya Bakar is a promising leader for the newly merged Ministry of Environment and Forestry as it takes on this substantial contribution to Indonesia’s NDC.

Contact:  sitinurbaya_bakar@yahoo.co.id
Ministry of Environment and Forestry Website: http://www.menlh.go.id/kontak/

Climate Program Advocate
Abdon Nababan
Secretary General of AMAN

The Indigenous Peoples Alliance of the Archipelago (AMAN, Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara) is a non-government organization that represents many of Indonesia’s indigenous peoples. AMAN is calling on the government to grant rights to Indonesia’s indigenous people who number up to 70 million. Among the rights that AMAN is working to ensure is the legitimization of customary land claims. Legitimizing land use claims of indigenous people would protect the land from large scale forest and peatland destruction by agroforestry industry and smallholders—landowners ranging from the tiny to the medium-sized—and also ensure greater compliance to moratoriums on land clearing; indigenous peoples empowered to control their land would also at the same time be protecting carbon sinks.

A necessary tool to ensure compliance with moratoriums and to prevent further deforestation and peatland destruction is the establishment of a single map of land rights, which does not currently exist in Indonesia. Currently, there is significant overlap between the maps of government agencies, different levels of government, private entities, and citizens. A single map would eliminate conflicts over land use and allow authorities and communities to enforce measures that protect forests and peatlands. AMAN filed a judicial review to the Constitutional Court, arguing that customary forests could not be turned into state controlled lands, especially when the government grants concessions to businesses that clear forests. This filing led to the 2013 Constitutional Court ruling on State Forest Areas and customary land rights. The ruling was that the state’s authority over customary forests was given to some degree back to the adat peoples (customary forests are free from the designation of “State Forest Areas”). However, despite this success of AMAN in this case, without a procedure to recognize claims, indigenous groups must now assert their interests and rights in the state mapping process and ensure sub-national enforcement of the ruling. This is why a single map of land rights that prioritizes customary land claims and carbon sink conservation is so important. AMAN helped establish the Participative Mapping Working Network (JKPP) to assert Indigenous land use claims in the developing One Map Policy that seeks to create a single, harmonized map of land uses. AMAN also pushes local governments to honor the 2013 ruling. As of 2016, JKPP and AMAN have documented 7 million hectares of land. AMAN is also pushing district governments to uphold the court ruling by preparing dossiers on indigenous customs and lifeways. It is a slow process; only five regulations, known as Perdas, have been passed since the Constitutional Court’s decision. The participatory mapping processes and the work with district governments to uphold the 2013 ruling will help expand and protect customary lands that will ultimately protect carbon sinks and therefore contribute to the success of Indonesia’s Paris Agreement pledge.

Abdon Nababan, secretary general of AMAN, recognizes the important role of Indigenous people in battling climate change. He has stated that “[t]he bill [PPHMHA] could also highlight the role of indigenous people in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.” AMAN’s secretary general is leading many promising efforts to protect indigenous rights and fight climate change. His and his organization’s work in the past has been impressive and impactful.

Contact: rumahaman@cbn.net.id

Climate Program Opponent
Palm Oil Producers

Despite President Widodo administration’s April 2016 moratorium on palm oil concessions, many palm oil companies continue to clear forests. The MoEF has rejected 850,000 hectares worth of outstanding palm oil plantation requests, cancelled 600,000 hectares of previous approved sites, and has further plans to enforce the moratorium and prevent conversion. Despite all of this good work, many palm oil producers continue to clear, undermining the government and local communities.

The IOI group traded in palm oil that was not sustainably sourced. Goodhope Asia Holdings Ltd—a palm oil supplier—sold palm oil to the IOI group and other traders. Goodhope has illegally cleared forested peatland. IOI receives Goodhope’s palm oil through intermediary traders such as Wilmar International, Musim Mas, and Golden Agri Resources (GAR). Goodhope has failed to consult the public or release plans. It has deforested in its PT Nabire Baru concession in Kalimantan this year. These palm oil producers must not continue to clear forests and peatlands. These actions will harm the work laid out for the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry after the COP-22 meeting in Marrakesh and prevent Indonesia’s successful implementation of their Paris Agreement pledge.

Contact:  rspo@rspo.orgreachus@goodhope-id.com

Learn More
About the history of the Forestry Ministry before the merger: http://www.asiasentinel.com/society/indonesia-forestry-ministry-test-jokowi-power/

On the merger of the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Forestry and on Siti Nurbaya Baka’s reforms in “False Start” section: https://news.mongabay.com/2015/08/promised-task-force-on-indigenous-rights-in-indonesia-hits-snag/

More on AMAN’s work to push sub-national governments and the national government to enforce the 2013 Constitutional Court ruling with Perda regulations: https://news.mongabay.com/2016/04/perda-push/

Abdon Bababan’s statements on PPMHA and mitgation efforts can be found here along with more on deforestation in Borneo: https://news.mongabay.com/2016/09/a-major-concern-plantation-driven-deforestation-ramps-up-in-borneo/

 

Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Indonesia Leading Research Study

Research Study: National Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals on Indonesia’s Forests and Peatlands (2015), Haruni Krisnawati, Rinaldi Imanuddin, Wahyu Catur Adinugroho, Silver Hutabarat, Ministry of Environment and Forestry (Kampus Badan Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Inovasi)

Audience: government decision-makers and the UNFCCC primarily. Also an important primary source for academics, reporters, the public, and stakeholders in Indonesia’s INDC implementation

INCAS and the Importance of their First Publication

The Indonesian National Carbon Accounting System (INCAS) is Indonesia’s system to measure, report on, and verify (MRV) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from forests and peatlands. Removals and emissions compose its greenhouse gas inventory. Removals include any effort that “removes” carbon from the atmosphere; often this is in the form of carbon sequestration in sinks. One Indonesian government agency tasked with removals is the Peatland Restoration Agency, which seeks to restore peatlands and recapture carbon released from fires and land use change. INCAS’s first research-based publication in 2015 came before the Paris Agreement to show Indonesia’s ability to provide a detailed account of its greenhouse gas emissions. This is their first and most recent report. INCAS is set to expand into other land use sectors and become operationalized across the entire Ministry of the Environment. This first publication not only displays the most detailed and most accurate account of Indonesia’s GHG emissions in the sectors covered, but it also establishes a MRV system to meet Paris Agreement requirements which covers the bulk of Indonesia’s GHG emissions. A robust MRV system is necessary to provide accurate GHG emission data to the UNFCCC. In our second Climate Scorecard Project post, we identified land use change, especially in peatlands, as the biggest hurdle.

The INCAS study provides the first ever national results of net GHG emissions and removals in each of the key Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) activities and shows the importance of addressing these activities in meeting Indonesia’s pledge. These activities include: deforestation, forest degradation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. It is important to note that the MRV system for peatlands used in this 2015 publication is not Tier 3. Bringing peatland GHG emissions to Tier 3 is a goal of INCAS. Tier 2 systems are below the Paris Agreement standard for a country’s MRV system. The UNFCCC requires accurate measurement of GHG emissions to give countries access to international climate funds. Therefore, Indonesia must develop a Tier 3 MRV system for peatlands to have their data be considered accurate.

This first INCAS publication serves as an important primary source for those wanting to cite Indonesia’s GHG emissions, as a reference for governments and organizations. It provides proof of Indonesia’s ability to accurately represent its pledge implementation, and also lays the groundwork for the expansion of INCAS’s efforts. It is pretty much the basis for what future steps will be taken on Indonesia’s GHG emissions profile and therefore how those actions will affect other national initiatives. The data it provides can be organized in many different ways, it therefore is very useful for the formation of any government policy. The different ways the emissions data can be organized include, for example, by REDD+ activity and province. INCAS’s MRV system is a primary source for emissions data. It is the most accurate and comprehensive system and so therefore the results direct national policy planning. “In addition to supporting Indonesia’s international and domestic emissions reporting requirements, the INCAS provides detailed information to support the development of Indonesia’s REDD+ architecture and broader emissions reductions efforts” (page 3 of study). The different ways in which the data from INCAS’s MRV system can be broken down and used to develop Indonesia’s REDD+ architecture and its reporting is discussed in the Implications of the Publication section below. This study provides a national account of historic emissions. It covers 2001-2012 net GHG emissions.

Contents of the Publication

The key features of the INCAS study include how it will implement each part of MRV, the flexibility and event driven nature of the system, and how INCAS will ensure continuous improvement. The key features section also mentions uncertainties in the MRV system. The methodology section lays out the scope of the measurement system; “GHG emissions and removals are estimated annually for the following gases and sources: CO2 emissions and removals from carbon stock changes, Non-CO2 emissions from surface fire, CO2 and N2O emissions from mineral soil, Biological oxidation of drained peat, peat fire, and direct emissions from drained organic soils” (page 23 of study). The results show how GHG emissions varied between 2001 and 2012. Results can be presented by province, forest type, soil type, forest function, subsequent land use, and relevant GHGs or carbon pools. The results can be organized based on REDD+ activities or by the UNFCCC land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) categories.  Finally, the study provides an improvement plan for the MRV system and INCAS.

Implications of the Publication

INCAS’s MRV system presented in this publication meets Paris Agreement requirements. The government can now report GHG emissions up to the standard of UNFCCC National Communications and for Biennial Update Reports. For government decision-makers and the public, the study provides many useful insights. The data of the study can be broken down by province and source of emission. The ability to breakdown emissions by province allows each province to see which activity is generating the most GHG emissions. This will provide data crucial to the direction of provincial mitigation and adaptation plans (called RAD-GRKs, discussed in the previous Climate Scorecard Project post). Provincial level data also shows where government policies need to be enacted first. The results of the study showed that Kalimantan was a major source of emissions. The government One Map Plan—the plan to harmonize different mapping into one national map—has started its work in that province. The efforts to reduce emissions can be targeted to the guiltiest provinces first. One of the improvements mentioned in the study was accessing better and improving spatial data. The need to have a robust MRV system also helps the development of the One Map plan by bringing in spatial and mapping data from many government actors. As INCAS continues its work, it should seek to bring actors together to improve its own data and One Map. Provincial level data allows the government also to identify “data limitations or gaps and guide further data collection for research purposes” (see page 52 of study).

Breaking down GHG emissions by source allows the government to plan land use. For example, understanding which sources produce the most emissions allows the Indonesian government to identify which lands need to be most urgently protected and which can be used for energy plant concessions in the electrification program (see the Climate Scorecard Post on Indonesia’s energy profile). Further, this breakdown of data by UNFCCC land use category, forest type, forest function, broad soil type, and REDD+ activity will provide a “sound basis for establishing Indonesia’s Forest Reference Emission Level in a way that makes it possible to assess future REDD+ performance” (see page 51 of study).

The input of data into this MRV system is also dynamic and flexible. It can therefore be adapted to changes in emission sources. This gives Indonesia’s emissions reduction efforts more credibility and provides a system that can compare national, provincial, district, and project level data with accurate and detailed data. This system will allow the inclusion of more data sets and further improvements to INCAS’s measurement of peatlands. Because it is the most robust and accurate system for measuring emissions, it is considered the most credible by actors in Indonesia and internationally as well as for the UNFCCC.

Learn More

Link to the study: http://www.incas-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/1.-INCAS-National-Inventory-of-Greenhouse-Gas-_web.pdf

The INCAS roadmap lays out the next phases of INCAS from 2015-2018 and beyond, which includes its expansion into agriculture forestry and other land use (AFOLU) activities and how it will be operationalized: http://www.incas-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/INCAS-Roadmap_Nov-15.pdf

Helpful article on INCAS and some of the problems of INCAS, especially with its measurement of peatlands: http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/indonesia-aims-for-top-tier-carbon-accounting-across-all-land-types-by-2018-but-fragmented-land-management-leaves-peat-in-limbo/

For questions about the study, you can contact INCAS at Ministry of Environment and Forestry:
Jalan Gunung Batu No. 5 Bogor (INCAS Office)
Telephone: 0251 752 0067
Email : datinfo@forda-mof.org | incas@forda-mof.org
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Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Indonesia Emissions Reduction Policy

Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp

 

Indonesia: National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Reduction (RAN-GRK) and The National Action Plan on Climate Change (RAN-API)

Background on Indonesia’s National Climate Change Policy

In 2009 at the G20 summit, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, the previous president, called for the emissions target that become the basis for Indonesia’s INDC in 2015; a 26% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below business-as-usual by 2020 and up to 41% reduction by 2020 with international assistance. The current INDC stands at 29% reduction by 2030 and the same 41% conditional target. In 2011, Yudhoyono declared Presidential Regulation no. 61 which included the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Reduction (Rencana Nasional Penurnan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca, RAN-GRK). Presidential Regulation No. 61 was the outcome of the G20 summit and the COP meetings in Cancun and Copenhagen. The decree intended to use RAN-GRK as a reference document for GHG emissions in any government development planning. RAN-GRK has been expanded since the decree. It identifies the actions that Indonesia will take to reduce its GHG emissions. In 2012, Bappenas (National Development Planning Agency) established a secretariat for RAN-GRK. The executive branch has largely developed and implemented RAN-GRK.

RAN-GRK’s Reach

RAN-GRK is the “plan of action” for Indonesia’s emissions reductions targets. RAN-GRK requires the participation of government ministries and institutions to reduce GHG emissions. RAN-GRK identifies five major sectors that will be essential to achieve RAD-GRK’s emission reduction target. These are: forestry and peatlands, agriculture, energy, industry, transportation, and waste. The responsible government ministries are BAPPENAS, the ministries of environment, forestry, agriculture, public works, industry, transportation, energy and finance. Although RAN-GRK is a national action plan, it also lays the foundation for the actions of provinces, localities, and private enterprises to implement GHG reductions. RAN-GRK mandates that Indonesia’s provinces develop and submit a Local Action Plan (RAD-GRK). RAN-GRK provides capacity building, budgets and potential participation in domestic and international markets to local governments to incentivize them to contribute to RAN-GRK’s goals. RAD-GRKs are tailored to the development plans of each of the provinces. The Ministry of Home Affairs with the support of Bappenas and the Ministry of the Environment oversees and coordinates the preparation of RAD-GRKs. Bappenas creates the guidelines for each of the local action plans. Local Actions Plans are planned with these expectations:

  • Calculation of GHG inventory and of a provincial multi-sectoral BAU baseline.
  • Identification and selection of mitigation actions.
  • Development of mitigation scenarios according to selected and prioritized GHG mitigation actions in line with their local development priorities and plans.
  • Identification the key stakeholders/institutions and financial resources.
  • Local governments also can encourage the involvement of public and private companies by raising awareness of the climate change impacts and facilitating public private partnerships (among other options).

Taken from the RAN-GRK secretariat webpage. See “Learn More” below under RAN-GRK and RAD-GRK.

How RAN-GRK Functions, RAN-API

Indonesia’s unifying national policy framework is the National Action Plan on Climate Change (RAN-API). Established in 2007 by the Environment Ministry, RAN-API is coordinated by the National Council on Climate Change which is composed of 17 ministers and is chaired by the president. RAN-API brings together many different mitigation strategies. These include Indonesian Adaptation Strategy (Bappenas 2011), National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change For Indonesia (DNPI, 2011), Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (Bappenas 2010), the National Action Plan for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (Ministry of the Environment, 2007), and the sectoral adaptation plans by line ministries/government agencies. RAN-API strengthens RAN-GRK’s seven mitigation actions through these ways and helps achieve the 2019 target of 26% GHG emissions reductions. These mitigation actions are:
1. Sustainable peatland management
2. Reduction in rate of deforestation and land degradation
3. Development of carbon sequestration projects in forestry and agriculture
4. Promotion of energy efficiency
5. Development of alternative and renewable energy sources
6. Reduction in solid and liquid waste
7. Shifting to low-emission transportation modes

 

Learn More

Presidential Regulation no. 61/2011: http://theredddesk.org/countries/laws/presidential-regulation-no-612011-regarding-national-action-plan-ghg-emission

Summary of RAN-GRK: https://hub.globalccsinstitute.com/publications/development-indonesian-namas-framework/i4-ran-grk-national-action-plan the rest of the report, which includes this section on RAN-GRK, also discusses Indonesia’s NAMA and gives assessments of the different sectors that the NAMAs seek to influence.

RAN-GRK and RAD-GRK: http://www.sekretariat-rangrk.org/english/about/about-rangrk/relation-of-ran-and-rad-grk

RAN-API: https://gc21.giz.de/ibt/var/app/wp342deP/1443/wp-content/uploads/filebase/programme-info/RAN-API_Synthesis_Report_2013.pdf and http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/legislation/countries/indonesia/

RAN-GRK summary and comparison with other countries’ NAMAs: https://mitigationpartnership.net/sites/default/files/2011_wi_wanghelmreich_current_developments_in_pilot_namas_of_developing_countries.pdf

CAIT from WRI tracks and reports on each province’s adaptation plan in a very accessible way: http://cait.wri.org/indonesia

For more information about Bappenas’s MER system: Climate Change Policy in Indonesia edited by Shinji Kaneko and Masato Kawanishi, section 2.3.2

INCAS’s land use MRV across Indonesia, data from INCAS and the reported measurements: http://www.incas-indonesia.org/data/national-data/

Background on MRV and INCAS: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/10/07/indonesia-aims-unified-reliable-greenhouse-gas-data.html

Challenges facing INCAS in MRV measurements of land use: http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/indonesia-aims-for-top-tier-carbon-accounting-across-all-land-types-by-2018-but-fragmented-land-management-leaves-peat-in-limbo/

MOEF’s report on INCAS from 2015: http://www.incas-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/1.-INCAS-National-Inventory-of-Greenhouse-Gas-_web.pdf

OJK and finance, from the Jakarta Post: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/06/22/analysis-is-indonesia-ready-finance-change.htm

 

–Submitted by Climate Scorecard Country Manager Hriday Sarma

Indonesia Energy Production Trends

How the Energy System is Structured

Indonesia’s electrical grid and distribution is owned and managed by Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN), which simply translates to ‘State Electricity Company’. It is Indonesia’s only fully-integrated power utility company. Until 2002, PLN held a monopoly on distribution, but Law No 20/2002 called for an end to the monopoly. This law was ruled unconstitutional in 2004 by the Constitutional Court. Despite this, a later 2009 law legislated an end to PLN’s monopoly. Therefore, the electricity sector’s legal status is uncertain.

The government is attempting to encourage the private sector to expand Indonesia’s energy infrastructure and production, but foreign firms are slow to invest. Many problems remain due to delayed projects, regulatory difficulties, and legal questions. The government has encouraged electrical production growth through several measures. Ministerial Decree No. 2 of 2006 ordered PLN to purchase electricity from renewable energy providers with a capacity of up to 10 MW.  This encourages the growth of renewable energy and the development of the private sector in that production. The Minister of Energy Regulation No. 31 of 2009 lays out Power Purchasing Agreements (PPA) between private power producers and PLN. Independent power producers (IPPS) can operate in areas not already designated as sites for PLN’s electrification efforts. IPPs must build their own transmission grids to sell to their customers or go through PLN with a PPA. Since the 1999 Law on Local Government No. 22, local government has greater power in administering the energy sector. Local governments control the development of energy resources and the issuing of permit rights for infrastructure projects. This has created delays and problems for many energy projects, even ones that are essential to achieving national energy goals. However, this decentralization can help the development of independent power producers if they are able to secure a license.  Local partnerships with foreign investors in the energy sector are encouraged in projects between 1 MW and 10MW. For projects greater than 10 MW, 95% ownership is possible. Energy production in Indonesia for domestic use is largely public, but the government is seeking to encourage private producers.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) governs energy in Indonesia. Its directorates cover the oil, gas, and renewable energy sectors. For example, one such directorate is the Directorate General of Minerals and Coal (DG Minerba) that does policy-making, licensing, and regulation of coal production and use. The Directorate General of Oil and Gas (DG Migas), the Directorate General of New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (DG EBTKE), and the Directorate General of Electricity (DG Electricity) have similar responsibilities as DG Minerba does in those areas in their own energy sectors. The oil and gas sector is also overseen by the regulatory body called the Regulatory Agency for Upstream Oil and Gas (BPH Migas). MEMR also handles the state-owned enterprises and researches the government’s mandates for energy. Other institutions involved in the energy sector are the State Ministry of National Development Planning known as BAPPENAS, the Ministry of State-Owned Enterprises (MSOE), and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF). The National Energy Council (DEN), BAPPENAS, CMEA (Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs), and the Ministries of Trade, Finance, Environment and Forestry, and Industry are involved with policy-making for all of the energy sectors, which includes: coal, oil and gas, new and renewable energy, and electricity. For a more detailed breakdown of the government institutions and their jurisdictions in the energy sector, see the “Learn More” section below under “Energy Profile of Indonesia” on pages 10 and 11 of ADB’s report.

State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are major actors in Indonesia’s energy sector. They operate as corporations and follow the government’s energy goals. MSOE makes sure these enterprises function efficiently and are well-managed. Individual ministries ensure compliance with sectoral laws and regulations. For example, BAPPENAS oversees that SOEs follow its central planning. SOEs in the energy sector includes PLN in energy transmission and distribution, PT Pertamina in oil and natural gas, PT Perusahaan Gas Negara (PGN) in natural gas and coalbed methane, and PT Geo Dipa Energi (GDE) in geothermal energy. The previously mentioned 2009 end to the government monopoly on energy production will allow private power producers to grow in Indonesia. Additionally, the government mandated increases to electrical production rely heavily on investment funding from the private sector. Private energy production is slow to grow due to poor access to the grid and uncertainty over the fuel supply. There are many foreign energy producers of oil and gas. However, much of it is exported. The most notable include: Chevron, Total, ConocoPhillips, Exxon, and BP. Chevron produces more crude oil than Pertamina.

Sources of Energy

Fossil fuels dominate Indonesia’s energy profile at more than 97% of the total: 41.1% from coal, 37.6% from oil, and 18.3% from natural gas. Most of Indonesia’s renewable energy comes from hydropower (around 2%) and geothermal power (around 1%). The projections under the National Energy Policy (Kebijakan Energi Nasional or KEN) forecast a tripling in coal generation, a doubling in gas generation, and a greater than tenfold increase in renewable energy from 2011 to 2025. These projections are based on KEN’s targets for Indonesia’s energy mix.

Presidential Decree No 5./2006 on the National Energy Policy (Kebjiakan Energi Nasional or KEN) seeks to make Indonesia’s energy use more environmentally stable and diverse and to increase domestic energy sources. The 2025 targets of KEN are as follows: 30% coal, 25% oil, 23% renewables, and 22% gas. The 2050 targets: 31% renewables, 25% coal, 24% gas, and 20% oil. One of the efforts to achieve these targets and expand access to electricity is the government’s planned $93 billion expansion in infrastructure and energy generation, including 291 generation plants. PLN is taking on $50.5 billion of the project; the other $40.5 billion will be taken on by the private sector. The goal of the spending is to bring the population with access to electricity from 85% to 98% by 2022.

Indonesia has huge electricity generation capacity in geothermal, hydropower, solar power and biomass. Hydropower accounts for the largest source of potential energy at 76 GW, followed by biomass at 50 GW, geothermal at 28 GW, wind with 1 GW, and solar at 4.8 kWh/m2/day (Directorate General for Electricity and Energy Utilization). However, Indonesia has been slow to take advantage of these sources. The Indonesian government is presenting investors with opportunities in both small and large scale power generation projects. Given the government’s target for renewables to account for 15% (or 12.5 GW) of total domestic energy use by 2025 and a planned capacity increase of 55 GW to 2019, it is essential that energy generation production projects are implemented. “PLN estimates that the total investment required will be $96.2 billion USD of which it can provide up to $60.5 billion USD (PLN 2011-2020 Electricity Supply Plan). IPPs are therefore being encouraged to take on up to 43% of new electricity capacity with a target of 3% of the total being supplied by small scale projects.” Land use permits for new sites are a major obstacle for hydropower, especially in protected forests. This was a major obstacle for geothermal energy permits as well, until a 2014 law removed geothermal energy’s designation as a mining activity. (Quote from: http://www.gbgindonesia.com/en/energy/article/2012/indonesia_s_electricity_and_power_generation_sector.php)

Profiles of Leading Energy Companies

Perusahaan Listrik Negara: Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN): PLN accounts for 84% of total electricity transmission, while independent power producers make up 16%. PLN’s peak load was 36,787 MW in 2015. The percent of households connected to the grid—the electrification ratio—is 84%. Of the 257.9 million people in Indonesia, 60.3 million are customers of PLN, by far largest provider of electricity in the country. The Indonesian government has charged PLN to help increase the national installed capacity of 50,000 MW by 35,000 MW over the next five years. PLN is accountable for achieving the government’s accelerated generation targets. PLN intends to contribute 10,000 MW. The rest will come through the private sector. Additionally, the government’s target for the electrification ratio is 99.4% by 2024. Given this government policy, it is unlikely that there will be any energy use reductions. However, the government is committed to expanding the renewable energy sector, especially in hydro and geothermal power. Currently, PLN’s main sources of power come from fossil fuels. The government mandated fast tracking of power production (FTP-II), which planned for increases in hydro power (1,753 MW) and geothermal power (4,000 MW), but implementation has been slow. Indonesia has considerable hydro and geothermal potential. Implementation of these plans is key to combating greenhouse gas emissions and providing for the energy requirements of Indonesia’s developing economy. Unfortunately, efforts to increase the scale of geothermal energy production, as well as gas production, have been difficult and slow. PLN expects increasing coal production to prop up domestic power production. This will make Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction commitments more difficult to attain. Making implementation of green energy easier, continuing to expand capacity, speeding up permitting at new sites, and increasing prices to competitive levels will spur the development of renewable energy production. PLN is prioritizing the development of renewable energy sources to supply local grids as the increases to the electrification ratio will put a lot of pressure on the grid.

Pertamina: Pertamina is also a state-owned enterprise and the second largest gas producer in the country, behind Chevron Pacific Indonesia. One of the arms of Pertamina is Pertamina Geothermal Energy, which has concessions for geothermal development across Indonesia. Indonesia has the third largest installed generating capacity in the world. 40% of the world’s potential geothermal sources are in Indonesia, some 28,000 MW. Indonesia only has an installed capacity of 1,500 MW. The government has awarded Pertamina geothermal work areas to expand the installed capacity. PLN will acquire a stake in Pertamina to accelerate the expansion of the geothermal energy supply. The government—through the 2014 geothermal law—will facilitate the adoption of geothermal energy by increasing the price ceiling range to between $0.12 and $0.30 per KWh, due to the high startup costs of geothermal energy. Geothermal activities under this law are no longer considered mining, which prevented companies in protected forests and conservation areas from making new geothermal plants. This measure might be problematic given the importance of Indonesia’s forests as a carbon sink. The negative impact this will have on forests is yet to be seen. These measures will help PLN, Pertamina, and new foreign firms to transition to geothermal energy and help Indonesia achieve its emissions reductions targets.

Submitted by Climate Scorecard Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Indonesia Emission Reduction Challenges

Leading Emission Reduction Challenges: (a) Deforestation; (b) Problems implementing existing climate change policies and programs

 

Current Greenhouse Gas Emission Levels

Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked to its land use and forestry. Between September and October of 2015, large amounts of stored carbon were released in Southeast Asia from fires in forests and peatlands. More than half of these fires came from peatlands. This period had an average emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during this time period. This average emission rate exceeded the entirety of the European Union; 8.9 Tg CO2 per day. 97% of the total emissions from this period – 227 ± 67 Tg C. Much of these emissions came from south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and Papua. El Niño’s dry weather and droughts aggravated these fires.

 

Emission Reduction Challenges

Although Indonesia will not experience El Niño in 2016—and therefore the drought will not be as severe during Indonesia’s dry season—the destruction of Indonesian carbon sinks has continued in 2016. In the 2015 period and now, palm oil production and other practices that destroy forests and peatlands are largely responsible. Although this same period should not be as severe as last year’s, the dry season will likely still result in massive greenhouse gas-emitting fires. This trend will persist unless there is major intervention in fires and enforcement of measures to protect environmental destruction.

President Widodo has called for a 5-year moratorium on new palm oil plantation construction and any existing concessions which would threaten forests. This moratorium is to be issued in August. This is coupled with a 2011 moratorium on permits to clear forests and peatlands. This 2-year moratorium has been extended twice and is still active. The government will use the One Map policy—the program that creates a single reference map of allowed land use—to ensure the policy does not conflict with other policies in areas such as mining and agriculture. Widodo plans to encourage existing plantations to produce palm oil more productively on the sites they have and wants to invest in further research into how to make palm oil sustainable and less environmentally destructive. For preventing fires in the coming months, the Integrated Forest Fire Taskforce in Riau (one of the most vulnerable provinces to fires and the most major palm oil producing province) will be charged with battling the blazes and the National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) will also be fighting fires. Under Indonesia’s 2011 National Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas emissions, each province must submit a Regional Action Plan of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAD-GRK). Of the 33 plans, only 8 have an adaptation plan.

One of the major hurdles with the moratoriums is ensuring enforcement, especially among slash-and-burn farmers and those illegally destroying carbon sinks. Identification of forest fires is also difficult, especially when they occur far from occupied areas. It is therefore necessary that the government and other actors closely track forests and carbon sinks using satellite data to ensure enforcement of moratoriums, the continued protection of forests, and that fires are identified and dealt with. The government must also enforce provincial commitments to reducing carbon emissions and encourage all provinces to adopt a plan of adaptation. No one government policy can encompass the emissions sources of the entire country, so they must be concerned with holding provinces accountable to their commitments and plans.

Submitted by Climate Change Country Manager Tristan Grupp

 

Useful Resources

Nature study on 2015 September to October emissions: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep26886

RAD-GRK: http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/06/6-things-you-never-knew-about-indonesias-emissions-and-local-climate-action

Riau and deforestation: http://www.eco-business.com/news/15-fire-linked-firms-escape-prosecution-in-indonesias-riau/

One Map and moratorium: http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/business/indonesia-impose-five-year-moratorium-new-palm-oil-concessions/

Moratorium: http://www.theborneopost.com/2016/07/21/indonesia-moratorium-to-include-existing-plantations/ and http://www.indonesia-investments.com/news/todays-headlines/palm-oil-industry-indonesia-five-year-moratorium-on-new-concessions/item7006

IFFT and BNBP: http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/news/number-forest-fire-hotspots-increase-ahead-idul-fitri-holiday/

 

Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Indonesia Ratification Status

Possibility of Ratification by 2018: High

Indonesia signed the Paris Agreement on April 22nd, 2016. Although Indonesia has yet to ratify the agreement, the government is committed to reducing emissions and following through with ratification. In order to ratify the agreement, it must first be submitted by the ‘institution initiating the agreement to the president through the minister of foreign affairs. The president can conclude international treaties with the consent of the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR, House the Representatives). The DPR has 560 seats that are determined by population. The DPR, in Article 3 of the constitution, makes decisions by a simple majority vote. For ratification, the signature of the President and the simple majority vote will pass the agreement.

Before signing the agreement, the Minister of Environment and Forestry Siti Nurbaya stated that the NDCs (nationally determined contributions) should be more ambitious than the initial INDCs (intended nationally determined contributions). Further, Rachmat Witoelar, the chief of President Joko Widodo’s Working Unit for Climate Change Control (UKP-PPI) stated before signing the agreement in New York that “Indonesia should be one of the first 55 countries to adopt the ratification process, and I hope Indonesia will immediately implement it.” These are encouraging signs of the commitment of the executive branch to implement the Paris Agreement.

The president supports the Paris Agreement and therefore it is likely that the Government Coalition will vote to ratify. The Government Coalition holds 386 seats of 560. However, it is worth noting that the National Awakening Party (PKB) which holds 47 seats tends to be slight right of center and therefore might not fall in line with the government coalition. Additionally, one of their platforms is to “accelerate the development of disadvantaged regions”, which would be more challenging under emissions restrictions. The unaligned Partai Demokrat tends to prefer neoliberal policies and is center right; its 61 members may not favor the agreement. Gerindra is part of the Red and White Coalition but is more of left wing party and recognizes that global warming is an important issue. Gerindra holds 73 seats. Even if the more moderate members of the Government Coalition do not back the agreement, the more left wing parties (PDI-P, Gerindra, Hanura, United Development Party (PPP), and Nasdem) hold 273 seats. It is likely that more will be picked up from Golkar, Partai Demokrat and the National Mandate Party (PAN) to pass the 280 vote threshold.

Indonesia is the sixth largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world partly due to its forestry and land use. Activities such as slash and burn farming, palm oil production, and dry weather have contributed to Indonesia’s greenhouse emissions from fires due to forest clearing and peatland destruction. Indonesia’s mangroves store some 3.14 billion tons of carbon. To demonstrate the huge importance of Indonesia’s forests in the global carbon sink, Indonesian mangroves hold as much to 3 to 5 times more carbon as the same area of rainforest would hold. Further, Indonesia’s peatlands are a massive carbon repository and makeup 80% of the world’s total peatlands. The destruction of these vital carbon sinks is a hurdle for Indonesia’s emission reductions. Given the economic growth of Indonesia, by 2025 energy generation from coal will match the emissions of land use and forestry. It is therefore essential that Indonesia not only address emissions that are the result of forestry and land use, but ensure that its rapid economic development will be sustainable, renewable, and will not result in steep increases in their greenhouse emissions.

Submitted by Climate Scorecard Country Manager Tristan Grupp

Learn more:

http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/indonesia-to-reconsider-climate-action-plan-may-ratchet-up-forests-and-ecosystem-restoration-revive-redd/

http://www.wri-indonesia.org/en/node/41061

http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/indonesia-to-downgrade-forests-upgrade-energy-in-new-climate-strategy/

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-haze-peatlands-idUSKCN0US0C620160114

http://www.redd-monitor.org/2016/03/03/norway-admits-that-we-havent-seen-actual-progress-in-reducing-deforestation-in-indonesia/

http://www.un.or.id/en/what-we-do/partnership-for-development/climate-change

http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/news/indonesia-attends-mef-climate-change-new-york/

http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/legislation/countries/indonesia/

http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/IndonesiaE.pdf