France Subsidies

Fossil fuel subsidies (excluding tax advantages on Diesel) in France accounted for €1.41 Billion in 2017 down from €3.42 Billion in 2014.

The total, including advantages on Diesel, accounts for €7-10 Billion a year. These subsidies mainly consist of tax exemptions / fiscal gifts on the one hand and, direct budget transfer / support on the other hand. For instance, VAT on gas in French Overseas Territories is 13% compared to 20% in mainland France. In the same way, the airline industry benefits from tax exemption on kerosene for domestic flights. On the other hand, direct budget support is relatively limited compared to tax exemptions and mainly consists of direct support to independent gas stations located in remote areas in France.

The Climate-Energy Contribution, aka Carbon Tax, was one of the key tools/policies enacted by the French Government in 2014. Its key strength is believed to be its ability to take into account / measure Carbon, i.e. to gradually enable Carbon pricing and reduce tax benefits / exemptions for fossil energies. For instance, the fiscal advantages / benefits on Diesel alone account for €5 to 6 Billion (often seen as a fiscal niche – not taken into account in the figures cited earlier in the article, i.e. the total fossil fuel subsidies, including tax advantages on Diesel, would reach €8 to 10 Billion). The 2016 draft Budget Bill is another essential policy that will, once enacted, upgrade and speed up the Climate-Energy Contribution until 2020, by gradually reducing tax advantages on Kerosene for example.

In terms of areas of improvement, experts estimate there are several types of subsidies that need to be reviewed and possibly eliminated. For instance, gradually reducing the tax advantages granted to road transporters could help finance and upgrade public rail infrastructure. Furthermore, the IMF and the OECD clearly advised governments to take advantage of the low prices of fossil fuel/energies and see it as an opportunity to implement taxes and eliminate subsidies without too much risking to antagonise / upsetting populations. Nevertheless, countries, including France, are still failing to accelerate the move and engage in large scale initiatives aimed at reducing or even eliminating fossil fuel subsidies.

Advocacy efforts are, therefore, necessary in this context, be it from NGOs and independent organisations and/or from other stakeholders, including public decision-makers, in order to engage in serious/long-term initiatives that will help reduce fossil fuel subsidies and ultimately reduce the impact on climate and climate change.

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France Survey

90% of respondents appeared to be aware of the challenges resulting from climate change, 59% of which believe that the consequences of climate change were underestimated. 76% of respondents believe these consequences were becoming critical/dangerous.

The 2015 BVA, La Recherche and Le Monde climate survey from 29 April to 4 May, focused on a representative sample of 1,053 people in France. The survey aimed to understand French people’s awareness and understanding of climate change. Ninety% of respondents appeared to be aware of the challenges resulting from climate change, 59% of which believe that the consequences of climate change were underestimated. 76% of respondents believe these consequences were becoming critical/dangerous. As for the cause of climate change, 93% of respondents believe that it is due to human activity, namely intensive farming and deforestation.

Another interesting survey to discuss is the September 2015 Odoxa—Puf survey of French youth on climate change. The survey relied on a representative sample of 1,001 people aged 15 to 30. It found that two thirds of respondents have never heard of COP21; only 13% of the remaining one third had a precise idea of what the COP21 was. Another interesting finding is that 71% of respondents were pessimistic as to the usefulness of this conference and its contribution to reducing climate change (cf. the 2°C objective). The survey also shows that young people favor the most radical solutions to climate change. For instance, 39% of respondents would like to force companies to reduce their CO2 emissions and impose sanctions on those that don’t.

Surveying the perception of climate change issues among four European countries

The EPCC 2016-2017 survey conducted in four European countries, including France, offers an interesting insight into the relevance of climate change issues relative to other national issues/questions. The French part of the survey focused on interviewing 1,000 people aged 15 and over from the 9th to the 14th of June 2016. Among the key findings, were that 36% of French respondents ranked unemployment as the top priority/issue facing the country whereas only 6% ranked climate change as the top issue. Nevertheless, 41% of respondents clearly indicated that they were very or extremely worried about climate change, compared to 29% in Norway. The survey also focused on the beliefs, emotions, psychological distance and other/related social aspects.

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France Strategies

France: (1) Increase compliance with EU Paris Agreement pledge (2) Substantially increase use of renewable energy (3) Reduce energy dependence and the importation of oil, coal, and uranium

According to government statistics, France was able to cut its GHG emissions by more than 16% between 1990 and 2014. France currently accounts for less than 1.2% of worldwide GHG emissions and the country exceeded the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, the average decrease in GHG emissions during the same period for the entire EU was 24%. France, therefore, needs to strengthen its compliance and increase its efforts in order to reach the 40% target by 2030.

Experts believe that France needs to commit more efforts to reducing these emissions in different sectors, including, for example, the transportation sector that accounts for more than 30% of national GHG emissions. They believe that the transportation sector is subject to a slow-down/inertia and the government needs to dedicate more attention to existing solutions such as the improvement of cars’ energy efficiency, the promotion of electric cars/engines and ridesharing solutions. A similar observation is being made for the agricultural sector (that accounts for 20% of GHG emissions). Experts believe that practices/solutions such as eco-agriculture and the fight against food waste are not promoted or encouraged enough at the national level.

A lot has been done so far, especially in terms of support for the purchase of clean vehicles, tax reductions/benefits for works that improve energy efficiency and different measures aimed at making the agricultural sector more eco-friendly. Nevertheless, the target set for 2030 (40% GHG emission reductions) and 2050 (cf. 100% renewable energies) are ambitious and require the country to increase its efforts and accelerate the implementation of both new and existing solutions.

One of the key ways that could help France reach its 2030 and 2050 objectives is to increase the use of renewable energy substantially over the coming years. In 2013, the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix was estimated at 14.2%. Experts estimated that France would need an additional 13.5 Mtep between 2013 and 2020 in order to reach the 23% objective (share of renewable energy) by 2020. The government needs to focus on developing existing tools and policies and to closely monitor their implementation (e.g. the 2015 Transition Law is currently a basis/key tool on which decision-makers can work to achieve the set targets for the different sectors). In the same way, reducing energy dependence and reliance on the import of fossil fuel, petroleum, coal, but also uranium is an essential part of this strategy at the national level. Last but not least, the focus should also be on improving renewable energy financing mechanisms.

Therefore, commitment from the different private/public actors as well as the improvement of existing tools/policies/mechanisms and the development of new ones are necessary in order to reach renewable energy targets set for 2020, 2030 and 2050.


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France Renewable Energy

France—Yes 100% by 2050

The European Union officially launched the European Union Climate and Energy Package in 2008, setting new environmental targets for 2020 that are even more ambitious than those set in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. One of these objectives is to reach a 20% share of renewable energies in the total EU consumption by 2020. Upon signature of the package, France committed to a 23% national objective by 2020, which was further confirmed in the 2009 Grenelle I law and the 2010 Grenelle II law.

By the end of 2016, the share of renewable energies was estimated at 16% of the energy mix. Despite the booster effect provided by the 2015 Transition Law, experts are still skeptical as to the feasibility and achievability of the 23% objective by 2020, with current estimates at 17%, according to the Renewable Energies Union. In the mid/long-term, the 2015 Transition Law sets a 32% objective for the share of renewable energies in the total energy mix in 2030. Furthermore, the 100% target set in the 2015 Transition Law for 2050 appears to be increasingly realistic/feasible at the national level, as several studies point out (see read more).

In socio-economic terms, the transition to renewable energy could lead to as much as €370 Billion of savings over the period 2020-2050. Moreover, job creation is expected to compensate the predicted job losses in some sectors due to this transition from traditional energies to renewable energies. For instance, négaWatt’s experts estimate the net/difference between job creation and job losses at +380,000 new/stable job opportunities by 2030 and +500,000 by 2050.

Following the 2009/28/CE EU directive, France started implementing action plans, such as the National Action Plan in Favour of Renewable Energies (PNA EnR), in order to help the country meet its objectives. Nevertheless, there have been noticeable delays and the results of these plans and policies have been different depending on the sector/industry. For instance, the weather/meteorological conditions clearly impacted on the 2014-2015 consumption of firewood. Moreover, the monitoring/tracking tool for the Renewable Energy (EnR) directive has not taken into account these meteorological changes/variations to adjust the set targets/objectives.

Nevertheless, a strategic document called the Multi-Annual Energy Programming (PPE), approved in 2016 (to be reviewed in 2018 – then every 5 years), sets new/adjusted targets for 2018 and 2023. This tool is articulated with a set of existing strategies and plans that contribute to the development of renewable energy in France. These include, for instance, the National Strategy for the Mobilization of Biomass, the National Strategy for Energy Research and the National Plan for the Reduction of Air Pollutant Emissions.

A project that can be taken as an example to illustrate this transition is Europe’s largest solar power plant, inaugurated in France in 2015. The plant called Cestas and based near Bordeaux, produces solar energy (300 MW) at a price cheaper than the one offered by new nuclear plants. Cestas is connected to the national grid and sells electricity to EDF for 105€/MWh. As a comparison, the new Hinkley Point nuclear energy plant in the UK is expected to sell electricity at a price of 130€/MWh. Nevertheless, Cestas’ price is still twice as much as the one offered by old nuclear energy plants in France (around 55€/MWh). An interesting aspect to highlight here is the decreasing cost of producing electricity from solar energy in the last few years. For instance, the first version of the Cestas project (2010) included projected/price estimates of around 300€/MWh. Linking this project to the action plans discussed previously, Cestas produces 300 MW of power and contributes to meeting France’s 8,000 MW target in 2020 (i.e. the target for photovoltaic power in 2020), and, therefore, contributes to the gradual transition towards a greener economy.

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France Success Project

France—The 4 per 1000 Initiative

The French Government has been promoting different participatory/multi-stakeholder initiatives that can help the country meet its INDC pledge to this Paris Agreement. Following the COP21 (cf. the Lima-Paris Action Agenda), France has clearly shown its interest in and commitment to developing agro-ecology in order to ensure sustainable soil management and reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Among the key/supported initiatives, the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA) launched the 4 per 1000 initiative (“L’Initiative 4 pour 1000”), as a participatory/private-public approach that encourages farmers to enhance their economic and environmental performance by increasing carbon sequestration in soil. France’s commitment is to ensure that more than 50% of its agricultural holdings will have implemented the agro-ecology initiative/approach by 2020.

The 4 per 1000 initiative, launched during the 2015 COP21, aims to demonstrate the crucial role agricultural soils can play in improving food security and limiting climate change. The scientific theory underlying this initiative states that a 4% annual growth rate of the amount of carbon stocked in the soil (cf. carbon sequestration) would make it feasible to limit and even halt the annual increase in atmospheric CO2.

The positive impact is twofold: on the one hand, the increase in carbon stocks in the soil would lead to halting the increase in atmospheric CO2 (and, therefore, reducing GHG) and; on the other hand, this increase would also lead to more fertile agricultural soils and an improved ability to cope with climate changes. So far, the combat against climate change has mainly focused on the restoration/protection of soils and forests. The above-described initiative focuses on covering soils as a means of making them richer in organic materials, i.e. richer in Carbon. The 4 per 1000 initiative addresses three key/global issues that include, the degradation of soil (threatening 40% of the dry land in the world), the threats to food security and the extreme events resulting from/amplified by climate change (e.g. drought).
Simulating the effects of this initiative on a global scale shows that increasing Carbon sequestration in the first 40 cm of the soil by +0.4% would lead to an anthropogenic equilibrium of CO2 and the halting of emissions due to land use change. Applied to the surface of soils, i.e. to an equivalent stock of 860 GtC (Gigatons of Carbon), the annual 4% target would translate into a 3.6 GtC of additional Carbon stock that would counter-balance the increase in atmospheric CO2.

The potential behind this initiative is significant on a global scale, i.e. 570 Million farms and more than 3 Billion people living in rural areas could implement these practices. The fact that environmental actors started promoting this initiative only recently (following the COP21 in 2015) makes it difficult to measure and evaluate on a large/national scale. Nevertheless, there are examples that show the replicability of this initiative at the EU/International level. The Portuguese Carbon Fund, for instance, estimated the Carbon storage/stock resulting from the rehabilitation of degraded grasslands at 1 Million Tons (e.g. using appropriate fertilizers, adapted forage plants, etc.). This initiative’s contribution to meeting France’s INDC pledge is, therefore, twofold: on the one hand, implementing the initiative nationally will result in the above-described benefits. On the other hand, the replicability of this initiative at the international/EU level will help the EU reach the 40% GHG emission reduction target by 2030.

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France Checkup

France—Standing Still

On March 6, 2015, the EU and its Member States (including France) communicated their INDC in conformity with the Paris Agreement. The EU and its Member States are committed to a binding target of  at least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990, to be fulfilled jointly. The Climate Action Tracker considered that the 40% emissions reduction target is significantly behind what is achievable and necessary by the EU and rated the EU’s pledge as “medium.” They see that the EU target is not consistent with limiting warming to below 2°C, let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit and represents only a slight slowdown in the rate of climate action compared to the preceding quarter-century—at exactly the time when there needs to be a threefold acceleration.

France scored 53 points and ranks third on the EU’s climate leaderboard, a tool that allows citizens to hold their governments accountable for the positions they take to implement the Paris Agreement. Regarding reducing its emissions, France´s results to date are positive. The French GHG emissions have all been below the targets over the past years. For example, in 2014 the French target was 389,5 Mt CO2 eq., but actual GHG emissions reached only 353,5 Mt CO2 eq.

Finally, the policy program of Emmanuel Macron, newly elected French president, includes few important aspects concerning climate change and the implementation of the Paris agreement. He commits to reviving the development of renewable energy and sticking to the objectives set in the energy transition bill, i.e., to reduce fossil fuel consumption by 30% by 2030 compared with 2012; to increase the share of renewable energies to 32% of fuel energy consumption and 40% of electricity production by 2030. However, the prohibition to issue new permits for hydrocarbon exploration and production is only temporary and no decision has been taken to make this prohibition permanent.
France is standing still and taking a slow-paced approach to honoring its INDC pledge to the Paris Agreement. The real challenge for France is not so much to fulfil the INDC adopted at the EU level, but to stick to the objectives of the energy transition bill especially concerning the development of renewable energy.

Lean More–-Europe’s-largest-climate-tool_final.pdf

France Emission Reduction Policy

Various Agriculture Sector Policies that Impact GHG Emissions  

In 2009, GHG emissions from the agriculture sector represented around 21% (107 MteqCO2) of the total emissions in France. Between 1990 and 2008, the emissions in the agriculture and forestry sector were reduced by 8% (around -9 MteqCO2). However, the Directorate General of Energy and Climate of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Sea observed that these emissions increased between 2007 and 2008 by 2.3%. This increase was caused in part by the abolition of letting fields lie fallow, which led to the increase of cultivated areas and helped promote the development of biofuels.

In France, applied policy measures in the agriculture sector rely on two complementary pillars:
Mitigation, aiming at reducing GHG emissions, especially through the increase of carbon sinks and fossil fuel energy substitution;
Adaptation to climate change.

Concerning mitigation, the following policy measures have been taken:
National Climate Plans (Plans Climats Nationaux): The first National Climate plan of 2004 proposed emission reduction measures in the agriculture sector but without specifying the real means to implement them. It focused national efforts on control of nitrogen fertilization, collection and recovery of biogas and valorization and development of products coming from biomass.
The Grenelle Environnement Forum: The discussions on “agriculture and climate” in 2007 especially focused on reducing the energy consumption of farms. The Grenelle Law 1 adopted in August 2009 calls for reduction “if possible” of pesticide use by 50% by 2018, and the goal of having 20% of agricultural production consist of organic products by 2012. The government also proposed having 30% of French farms with low energy dependence by 2013. In addition, a Plan for Plant Proteins (Plan Protéines Végétales) as part of the “Plan Objectif Terres 2020” was developed to support financially the culture of protein crops as they have a direct interest in reducing GHG emissions. Overall the content of the measures proposed by the Grenelle Environment Forum are quite ambitious and require a lot of investments. Most of the targets have not been achieved yet but the Government and the regions are deploying efforts to achieve them.

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France Extreme Weather Event

Xynthia—A Fierce Storm

The storm Xynthia was an intense low pressure system (weather event) which took place on the 27th and 28th of February 2010. It generated extremely severe wind combined with strong high tides and led to very strong and fast land mass submersion with heavy flooding. Five regions of France were strongly affected: Poitou Charentes, Pays de Loire, Aquitaine, Brittany and Normandy. During this storm, 47 persons died in France of which 35 were in Vendée, and 29 in the village of Faute-Sur-Mer. Due to the flooding many people have been displaced and numerous material damages have occurred. This storm is considered one of the strongest and deadliest natural disasters in the past twenty years. It created a deep psychological social trauma in the affected regions.

Following this event, the Government enacted legislative and policy measures. An order recognizing the state of natural disaster was published in the official gazette on the 3rd of March 2010 for four Departments in France. Its aim was to facilitate compensating victims and to trigger insurance mechanisms. In July 2010, the Commissions from the national parliament and the senate issued their reports. More than 100 proposals were made with the main objective to avoid other disasters of this kind. Some recommendations aimed at improving the dissemination of information about what to do in natural disasters; while others recommended increased financial support to municipalities to implement local response plans. New spatial plans were developed and flooded areas were designated “zones of extreme danger” and “black zones. The government bought many houses that were destroyed in these areas.

France Media Organizations

Broadcast Media

France 24 is a 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris that started in 2006. It targets the worldwide market and is generally broadcast via satellite and cable operators around the world. In 2010, France 24 also began broadcasting through its own iPhone and Android apps. The stated mission of the three channels is to “provide a global public service and a common editorial stance.”

The channel has a webpage on climate change: including articles and broadcasting.

In the context of the COP 22 in Marrakech, one of the weekly programs of the Channel “la semaine de l´Eco” focused on the energy transition since the adoption of the Paris Agreement and observed that climate change does not appear as a priority in the election platforms of France or the USA

The Channel also interviewed experts in the field of climate change. Recently, Virginie Raisson an expert in geopolitics was invited as economy specialist to discuss the impact of our food habits (especially our high meat consumption).

The channel published as well articles and videos in the context of the COP 21 supporting and spreading WWF positions:

However, very often the publications on climate change come from l’Agence France Presse (AFP) which produces around 200 articles per year on this topic. They are nor commented upon or criticized.

Since 2007, the main journalist covering climate change and environmental matters for the channel FRANCE 24 is Sebastian Seibt. To contact or follow him:
Some of his recent articles:
There are no real environmental journalists at France 24 like at Le Monde.
Print Media

Le Monde is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded in 1944 and continuously published since then. It is one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world.

Le Monde covers environmental issues and has a special webpage dedicated to Climate related aspects: It supports the Paris Agreement and publishes regularly climate change related articles informing French people on the international development and negotiations (e.g. Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement), global warming and its consequences. The newspaper covers for example UNFCCC COPs and the energy transition in France. Several recent articles deal with the climate change policy of the newly elected USA President, Mr. Donald Trump. As a climate skeptic, his election brings the risk of denouncing the Paris Agreement: Generally, the USA´s position toward climate change, especially the Kyoto Protocol, is a very recurrent topic in the newspaper. Other articles deal with global warming and the difficulty to achieve the target of the Paris Agreement (below 2 degrees Celsius), as the commitments of some countries (including again the USA) do not permit remaining below this threshold.

The main journalists publishing articles on climate changes for the newspaper Le Monde are:

Stéphane Foucart: He covers all science related issues and also environmental and climate change aspects and wrote several books including some on climate change: “le Populisme climatique: Claude Allègre et Cie, enquête sur les ennemis de la science “.

To contact or follow him:
Some of his recent articles on climate change:,

Simon Roger: Journalist at Le Monde (service Planète), he covers as well environmental and climate change related issues and wrote the articles for Le Monde on the COP22 in Marrakech.

To contact or follow him:
Email :
Some of his recent articles:

Online Media

Notre Planète Info is an independent web media launched in 2001 that provides news on environmental issues and on climate change in order to raise environmental awareness among the broad public. The articles cover especially the international developments regarding the UNFCC, Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement ( Other publications concern also address the consequences of climate change: ( ).

The main journalist covering climate change and environmental matters for this website is Pierre Marnier.

France Subnational Best Practices


Region Nouvelle Aquitaine—Region Nouvelle Aquitaine, with an area of 84,100 km2 and 5.8 million inhabitants, it is the biggest region of France. The Regional Council has established a Permanent Council for Energy Transition and the Climate. It will coordinate the action of the Regional Council services concerning climate change and mobilize external partners based on the Négawatt approach. It aims to reduce energy consumption, improve energy efficiency and substitution through the development of renewable energy. The renewable energy sector relies on a regional tool: the investment fund Terra Energies that was created in 2006. It brings together private and public partners through participatory financing mechanisms. Its goal is to support and facilitate renewable energy projects so that 32% of energy used in the region comes from renewable sources. Another objective of the region is to improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 in the industrial sector. The regional government matches the investments of these companies in their efforts to reduce their energy consumption by 10%. Aware of the importance of the contribution of buildings in energy consumption, the region also matches the money spent by owners of homes and housing in their energy renovation projects.

Jimenez Julien, Project manager
Mail: Hôtel de Région , 14 Rue François de Sourdis  33 077 Bordeaux cedex
Telephone: 0033 5 56 56 38 91


Le Grand Lyon (Lyon and its surroundings is the second biggest French city)—The Great Lyon signed the Convenant of Mayors committing to respect the objectives fixed by the EU by 2020 and to adapt its cities organization. It committed to reduce its CO2 emissions by 2020 by 20% (by 75% by 2050), and to reduce its energy consumption by 20%. It also pledged that renewal energy will represent 20% of the region’s total energy consumption. In 2012, the Great Lyon also adopted the Territorial Energy Climate Plan (Plan Climat Energie Territorial (PCET)). The Plan includes 26 actions for every sector concerned with GHG emissions. In total, 173 measures involving more than 50 partners are foreseen. For each of the 26 actions a steering committee will be established. The Great Lyon is the first French, and one of the first European cities, that took this initiative.

Various initiatives have been launched with very positive results. One is ‘Families with Positive Energy’ which allowed the region to save 990,000 kWh, equivalent to 170 tons of avoided CO2. In the city of Vénissieux, the share of renewable energy reached 50%.  Two thousand eco-buildings have been created through renovation in order to ensure low energy consumption. An ‘application by phone’ system has been created to support reducing local energy consumption and to limit GHGs. The city of Lyon received the label ‘Cit´energie,’ a European Energy Award.

Bruno Charles, Vice-Président EELV de la métropole de Lyon chargé du développement durable et de l’agriculture
Mail: Europe Écologie Les Verts du Rhône et de la Métropole Grand Lyon 34 rue Rachais 69007 LYON,
Telephone: 04 82 53 92 97

Other contacts regarding the PCET:
Agence Locale de l’Énergie de l’agglomération lyonnaise (ALE)
Mail: 14, place Jules Ferry, Gare des Brotteaux, 69006 Lyon
Telephone: 04 37 48 22 42

Dunkerque (Communauté urbaine de Dunkerque)—The Community of Dunkerque also signed the Convenant of Mayors and adopted a Climate Plan in 2008. It monitors GHG emissions and analyzes its carbon footprint. The main objective of PCET is to reduce the region’s GHG emissions to 25% of current levels by 2050. This is a national objective in line with EU policy. This reduction applies to waste treatment, housing, and transport sectors. A core aspect of the Plan is that the public service should show their examples concerning energy efficiency and savings. One example is that the community has established a “Reflex´Energie” scheme to encourage individuals to rehabilitate their houses. Three type of work are supported: isolation, installation of solar panels, and condensing boilers. A lot has been done to involve local companies and individuals. Various working groups have been established on specific topics (e.g. housing, mobility and urban planning). The city is also leading a research project (pilot project at national the level) ALTYTUDE on the use of alternative fuels for its public transport vehicles. Results: Since 2013, the City of Dunkerque has received the highest rating called ‘Cit´energie GOLD’. It has reached 73% of its objectives.

M. Jimmy Mary, Chargé de mission PCET et Cit’ergie (Communauté urbaine de Dunkerque),
Telephone: 03 28 24 48 83


There are 11 local associations that are members of the RAC and are involved in fighting climate change and reducing GHG emissions in France ( Two them are presented below.
Clim actions Bretagne Sud

Clim actions Bretagne Sud is an independent association aiming at mobilizing the politic, social, and economic stakeholders in order to adapt the region to the consequences of climate change. Its objectives are:
– Promoting energy sobriety and consumption models that respect common goods and the environment.
– Supporting, accompanying, and proposing solutions and innovative projects to reach the objective to reduce GHG emissions by 75% (factor 4 of the COP21, of EU and France).

Clim actions Bretagne Sud implements projects on education and climate in order to raise local awareness but it also supports citizen projects in the field of renewable energy through trainings for inhabitants but also for elected representatives.

Association Clim’Actions Bretagne
Mail: 43 rue du Maréchal Leclerc, 56000 Vannes, France
Telephone: 0689293597

Virage Énergie Climat Pays de la Loire

The association ‘Virage Énergie Climat Pays de la Loire’ was created by three other associations: Alisée, Attac44, et Sortir du Nucléaire 49. It aims to:
– Reduce GHG emission in the region Pays de Loire according to the recommendations of the IPPC: -40% by 2020 and at least -85% by 2050.
– Ensure sustainable energy supply by reducing consumption and developing renewable energy.

The association relies on the recommendations of the négaWatt scenario which proposes realistic solutions to reduce by the factor 4 energy consumption and GHG emissions in France, and on the work of ‘Virage Energie Nord Pas de Calais’, which was the first French local plan regarding climate-energy.